User Commands                                         CDDA2WAV(1)


NAME

     cdda2wav - dumps CD audio data into sound files  with  extra
     data verification


SYNOPSIS

     cdda2wav [ options ][ dev=device ] [file(s) or directories]


DESCRIPTION

     cdda2wav can retrieve audio tracks from CDROM  drives  which
     are capable of reading audio data digitally via SCSI (CDDA).

     As cdda2wav implements strategies  to  work  around  typical
     defects on audio CDs it reads many disks that cannot be read
     by other software.  As cdda2wav  can  use  libparanoia  (see
     -paranoia  option  below)  to  verify the data that has been
     read from the medium, it delivers superior quality  even  if
     the medium is dusty, scratched or if other problems occur.

     As cdda2wav may be directed  to  write  the  audio  data  to
     stdout,  it writes all its informational output to stderr by
     default. See out-fd=descriptor option below.

  Default settings
     Cdda2wav defaults to read the first  audio  track  from  the
     medium   and   the   default   verbose   level   is  set  to
     -vtoc,summary,sectors,titles and cdda2wav by default  writes
     *.inf  files.   To  extract  all  audio  tracks with quality
     verification, it is recommended to call:

     cdda2wav -vall cddb=0 speed=4 -paranoia paraopts=proof -B

     For hints on how to specify better parameters manually,  see
     the paraopts= description below.

  Device naming
     Most users do not need to care about device naming.   If  no
     dev=  option  was specified, cdda2wav implements auto target
     support and automagically finds the drive when  exactly  one
     CD-ROM  type  drive  is  available in the system.  When more
     than one CD-ROM type drive exists, a list of possible device
     name  parameters  may be retrieved with cdda2wav -scanbus or
     from  the  target  example  from  the  output  of   cdda2wav
     dev=help,  then  the  dev= parameter may be set based on the
     device listing.

     The device parameter to  the  dev=  option  explained  below
     refers    to    the    SCSI CAM    standard   notation   for
     scsibus/target/lun of the CD/DVD/BluRay-Recorder.  If a file
     /etc/default/cdrecord  exists,  the  parameter  to  the dev=
     option may also be a drive name  label  in  said  file  (see
     FILES section).

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OPTIONS

  Informative options
     -h

     -help
          display version information for  cdda2wav  on  standard
          output.

     -version
          display version and Copyright information.

  Audio options
     -a divider

     -divider divider
          sets rate to 44100Hz / divider.   Possible  values  are
          listed with the -R option.

          The default divider value is 1.

     -B

     -bulk

     -alltracks
          copies each track into a separate file.

          The default is not to extract all tracks.

     -b bits

     -bits-per-sample bits
          sets bits per sample per channel:  8, 12 or 16.

          The default is 16 bits per sample.

     -c channels

     -channels channels
          use:

          1    for mono recording

          2    for stereo recording

          s    for stereo recording with both channels swapped

          The default is stereo recording.

     -C endianess

     -cdrom-endianess endianess

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          sets endianess of the input samples to 'little', 'big',
          'machine'  or  'guess' to override defaults.  The value
          'machine' or 'host' is evaluated  as  the  actual  byte
          order of the host CPU in the current OS.

          The default is to detect cdrom endianess automatically.

     -cuefile
          Create a CDRWIN compatible CUE file.  A CUE  file  that
          completely follows the CDRWIN documentation can only be
          used to create 1:1 copies if there  is  a  single  file
          with  audio  data  for  the whole disk.  The *.inf file
          format implements  more  audio  CD  features  than  the
          CDRWIN CUE format and it allows to create 1:1 copies if
          there is one audio data file per track.   Use  the  CUE
          file  format for meta data only if you really need this
          format.

          To allow cdda2wav to create CUE files,  you  must  also
          specify  -t  all  to  switch  cdda2wav into a mode that
          creates a single audio data file for the whole CD.

     -T

     -deemphasize
          undo the effect of pre-emphasis in the input samples.

          The default is to keep the audio data in the same state
          as  on the medium and to mark the pre-emphasis state in
          the *.inf files.

     -L cddb mode

     -cddb cddb mode
          does a cddbp album- and track title lookup based on the
          cddb  id.  The parameter cddb mode defines how multiple
          entries shall be handled.
  _______________________________________________________________________
 | Parameter|  Description                                              |
 |__________|___________________________________________________________|
 |        -1|  disable cddb queries. This is the default.               |
 |         0|  interactive mode. The user selects the entry to use.     |
 |         1|  first fit mode. The first entry is taken unconditionally.|
 |__________|___________________________________________________________|

     cddbp-server=servername
          sets the server to be contacted for title lookups.

     cddbp-port=portnumber
          sets the port number to be used for title lookups.

     -d duration

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     -duration duration
          sets recording time in  seconds  or  frames  (sectors).
          Frames  are  indicated by a 'f' suffix (e.g. 75f for 75
          sectors).  0 sets the time for whole track.

          The default is to extract the whole track.

     -E endianess

     -output-endianess endianess
          sets endianess of the output samples to 'little', 'big'
          or  'machine' to override the default which is 'network
          byte order'  (big  endian).   The  value  'machine'  or
          'host'  is  evaluated  as  the actual byte order of the
          host CPU in the current OS.

     -F

     -find-extremes
          finds extreme amplitudes in samples.

     -G

     -find-mono
          finds if input samples are in mono.

     -g

     -gui reformats the output for parsing by gui frontends.

     -H

     -no-infofile
          does not write info file, cddb file or cdtext file.

     -i index

     -index index
          selects the start index.

     -J

     -info-only
          does not write to a file,  it  just  gives  information
          about the disc.

     -M

     -md5 enables calculation of  MD-5  checksum  for  all  audio
          bytes  from  the beginning of a track. The audio header
          is skipped when calculating the MD-5 checksum to  allow
          comparison of MD-5 sums for files with different header

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          types.

     -m

     -mono
          sets to mono recording.

     -no-hidden-track
          Ignore hidden tracks on the CD.  By  default,  cdda2wav
          checks  whether  there  might  be a hidden track before
          track 1.  This check may take a few  seconds  and  thus
          can be disabled with -no-hidden-track.

     -N

     -no-write
          does not write to a  file,  it  just  reads  (e.g.  for
          debugging  purposes).   If this option is used together
          with the -e option, the CD is read and the  audio  con-
          tent  is played back to the sound device without creat-
          ing output files with audio data.

     -no-textdefaults
          By default, cdda2wav replaces empty CD-Text fields from
          tracks  with  the  related CD-Text field (when defined)
          for the whole CD. If  the  option  -no-textdefaults  is
          used,  cdda2wav leaves the track related CD-Text fields
          empty in such a case.

     -no-textfile
          If cdda2wav encounters useful  CD-Text  information  on
          the   CD,   it  writes  a  .cdtext  file.   The  option
          -no-textfile allows to suppress  the  creation  of  the
          .cdtext file.

     -o offset

     -offset offset
          starts offset sectors behind start  track  (one  sector
          equivalents 1/75 seconds).

     -O audiotype

     -output-format audiotype
          can be wav (for wav files) or aiff (for apple/sgi  aiff
          files)  or aifc (for apple/sgi aifc files) or au or sun
          (for sun .au PCM files) or cdr or raw  (for  headerless
          files to be used for cd writers).

          The default output format is now wav for all  platforms
          as  it  has  become  the  most common format. Note that
          former versions of cdda2wav made an  exception  and  by

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          default created au type files on Solaris.

     -p percentage

     -playback-realtime percentage
          changes pitch of audio data copied to sound device.

     -P sectors

     -set-overlap sectors
          sets the initial number of overlap sectors  for  jitter
          correction  in  non-paranoia mode. Note that overlapped
          reads are handled differently in paranoia mode.

          The default overlap in non-paranoia mode is 1.

     -paranoia
          use  the  paranoia  library  as  a  filter  on  top  of
          cdda2wav's routines for reading.  In paranoia mode, the
          latency time for the -interactive mode and with a  read
          ahead  buffer size of 150..300 sectors, is increased to
          typically 5..10 seconds. This is due  to  the  paranoia
          code  reading  everything  at least twice and having to
          empty the cache RAM of the CD-ROM drive.

          The size of the read ahead area must be larger than the
          size  of  the  RAM  of the drive in order to allow lib-
          paranoia to empty the cache RAM in the drive.   As  the
          size  of the read ahead area in former times was a con-
          stant compiled into the libparanoia code,  the  extract
          quality with using libparanoia was no longer sufficient
          with drives  built  after  year  2000.  See  readahead=
          parameter to the paraopts= option below.

          If the paranoia mode is used,  cdda2wav  displays  some
          quality  statistics for each extracted track.  The fol-
          lowing items appear in the list:

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 ________________________________________________________________________
|   Value|  Description                                                 |
|________|______________________________________________________________|
|   rderr|  Number of hard read errors                                  |
|    skip|  Number of sectors skipped due to exhausted retries          |
|    atom|  Number of intra sector jitters (frame jitters) detected     |
|    edge|  Number of jitters between sectors detected                  |
|    drop|  Number of dropped bytes fixed                               |
|     dup|  Number of duplicate bytes fixed                             |
|   drift|  Number of drifts detected                                   |
|      c2|  Number of sectors with C2 errors                            |
|   reads|  Number of readahead blocks read and percentage to track size|
| overlap|  Number of dynamic overlap size raises                       |
|________|______________________________________________________________|

          The quality indicators in detail:

          rderr
               The number of  failed  low  level  read  requests.
               Each read appears for sectors-per-request sectors.
               The sectors-per-request  size  is  typically  less
               than the read ahead size.

          skip The number  of  sectors  that  have  been  skipped
               because  the  read error retry count was exhausted
               and no successful read was possible.

          atom The number of  jitters  that  have  been  detected
               inside  sectors.   This  should  never happen, but
               whenever a non-correctable C2  error  occurs,  the
               drive  could  lose streaming.  Increasing the read
               ahead buffer size may reduce the results from atom
               errors.

          edge The number of jitters that have been  detected  at
               the  edges  of  sectors.   This could be caused by
               sector positioning errors.   Increasing  the  read
               ahead buffer size may reduce the results from edge
               errors.

          drop The number of  dropped  samples.   This  could  be
               caused  by  sector positioning errors.  Increasing
               the read ahead buffer size may reduce the  results
               from edge errors.

          dup  Duplicated samples could be caused by sector posi-
               tioning  errors  like dripped samples.  Increasing
               the read ahead buffer size may reduce the  results
               from edge errors.

          drift
               This  is  the  amount  of  drifts  detected   when

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               checking the overlap area.

          c2   The number of sectors with  C2  errors  seen  when
               reading  the  last  track.   As  the paranoia code
               tends to read bad parts of the  disk  many  times,
               this number usually is above the number that would
               appear when the disk is just read once in a linear
               way.  Use paraopts=disable,c2check to see a number
               that represents the state of the medium.

          reads
               The number of read ahead blocks read for the  last
               track by the upper layer and the percentage of the
               amount of data read compared to the  size  of  the
               track.   This percentage is typically 200% because
               the paranoia code reads all data at  least  twice.
               If  there  is  a  lot of overlap and a lof of read
               problems, this percentage raises.

          overlap
               The number the overlap size has been raised.  This
               happens when the overlap size is below the maximum
               overlap size and errors in the  overlap  area  are
               detected.

     -paraopts=list
          List is a comma separated list of suboptions passed  to
          the paranoia library.

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_______________________________________________________________________________
|          Option|  Description                                               |
|________________|____________________________________________________________|
|            help|  lists all paranoia options.                               |
|         disable|  disables paranoia mode. Libparanoia is still being used   |
|       no-verify|  switches verify off, and static overlap on                |
|  retries=amount|  set the number of maximum retries per sector              |
|readahead=amount|  set the number of sectors to use for the read ahead buffer|
|  overlap=amount|  set the number of sectors used for static overlap         |
|  minoverlap=amt|  set the min. number of sectors for dynamic overlap        |
|  maxoverlap=amt|  set the max. number of sectors for dynamic overlap        |
|         c2check|  check C2 pointers from drive to rate quality              |
|           proof|  set minoverlap=20,retries=200,readahead=600,c2check       |
|________________|____________________________________________________________|

          The paraopts= parameters in detail:

          disable
               The paranoia corrections  are  disabled,  but  the
               data  is still directed through the code from lib-
               paranoia.  This  allows  to  switch  on  C2  error
               detection and to check the C2 error statistics for
               a CD.

          no-verify
               This switches off the  verification  of  the  data
               integrity  in  the  overlap  area  and  turns  off
               dynamic overlap control in favor of a static over-
               lap value.

          retries=amount
               Set the maximum number of read retries per  sector
               in case of hard read errors. The default value for
               this parameter is 20.  This is the same  value  as
               used by the old cdparanoia(1) command.

          readahead=amount
               Set the number of sectors  to  use  for  the  read
               ahead  buffer.  Except  when  at  the  end  of the
               medium, libparanoia never requests less than  this
               amount  of  data from the low level I/O code.  The
               size of the read ahead buffer  is  usually  bigger
               than the maximum size for a single DMA in the sys-
               tem. For this reason,  libparanoia  calls  several
               read  operations  in  order to fill the read ahead
               buffer.  The default value  used  by  cdda2wav  is
               400,  which  is  more  than  the  150 sectors that
               cdparanoia(1) uses but still a compromise for  not
               requiring too much memory.

               It is recommended to use a read ahead buffer  size
               that  is  not less than the RAM size in the CD-ROM

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               drive. If the drive has more than 1MB of RAM,  use
               425 sectors per MB of RAM in the drive.

               Note that as long as the readahead= value  is  too
               small,  the  extract quality varies a lot with the
               value in use.  The value used by cdparanoia(1) may
               cause  an  extract  quality  below  what  cdda2wav
               delivers without libparanoia.

          overlap=amount
               Set the number of sectors used for static overlap.
               This  switches  dynamic overlap off.  It is recom-
               mended not to use static  overlapping.  To  get  a
               larger  overlapping,  better use a higher minover-
               lap= value.

          minoverlap=amount
               Set the minimum  number  of  sectors  for  dynamic
               overlap.   The  default  value used by cdda2wav is
               0.5,  this  is  more  than  the  default  used  by
               cdparanoia(1) which is 0.1.

               For  old  drives  that  do  not  support  accurate
               streaming,  it  is  not  recommended  to specify a
               minoverlap= value greater or equal to the  maximal
               DMA size.

               For best results on other  drives,  it  is  recom-
               mended to use a minoverlap= value that is not less
               than half of the readahead size.

               The extract quality varies a lot with the minover-
               lap=   value,   but   increasing  the  value  also
               increases the extract time.

          maxoverlap=amount
               Set the maximum  number  of  sectors  for  dynamic
               overlap.   If  maxoverlap= was not specified and a
               large  minoverlap=  value  was   specified,   this
               results   in  a  quasi  static  overlapping.   The
               default value used by cda2wav is 32.

          c2check
               Turn on C2 error checking.   For  now,  this  just
               results in printing C2 error statistics.

               Warning: some drives have been  reported  to  fail
               reading  hidden tracks when the c2check mode is in
               effect.   When  you  plan  to  use  c2check  while
               extracting  hidden  tracks, first verify that your
               drive will report hidden tracks the same with  and
               without the c2check option.

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          proof
               This option is a macro for better extract  parame-
               ters  than  used  by  default.   The  macro  proof
               expands to:

                   paraopts=minoverlap=sectors-per-request-1,\
                       retries=200,readahead=600

               If sectors-per-request-1 is more than  20,  20  is
               used as minimal overlap value.

               The parameters used by proof  are  still  not  the
               best  and  there  is no best parameter set for all
               cases.  A larger value for the read  ahead  buffer
               size may e.g be too large for the available RAM in
               the system and the  best  value  for  the  minimal
               overlap  depends  on  whether  the  drive supports
               exact streaming.  It is recommended to run experi-
               ments  with larger values for the parameters mino-
               verlap= and readahead= to get the best results for
               a specific platform.

               Note that previous versions  did  include  c2check
               with  the  proof macro, but this has been reported
               to fail on some drives.

     -q

     -quiet
          quiet operation, no screen output.

     -r rate

     -rate rate
          sets rate in samples per second.  Possible  values  are
          listed with the -R option.

     -R

     -dump-rates
          shows a list of all sample rates and their dividers.

     -S speed

     -speed speed
          sets the cdrom device to one of the  selectable  speeds
          for  reading.   For  maximum  extraction quality, it is
          recommended to use speed values of 8 or below.

          The default is to extract at maximum speed.

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     -s

     -stereo
          sets to stereo recording.

     -start-sector sector
          set an absolute start sector. This option  is  mutually
          exclusive to -track and -offset.

     -t track[+endtrack]

     -track track[+endtrack]

     -track track+max

     -track all
          selects the start track and optionally the  end  track.
          If  -t all  is used, all audio tracks are selected.  If
          -t 2+max is used, all audio tracks starting with  track
          2 are selected.

     -v itemlist

     -verbose-level itemlist
          Retrieves and prints verbose information about the  CD.
          Level  is  a  list  of comma separated suboptions. Each
          suboption  controls  the  type  of  information  to  be
          reported.

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_______________________________________________________________________________
|   Suboption|  Description                                                   |
|____________|________________________________________________________________|
|           !|  invert the meaning of the following string                    |
|         not|  invert the meaning of the following string                    |
|     disable|  no information is given, warnings appear however              |
|         all|  all information is given                                      |
|         toc|  show table of contents                                        |
|     summary|  show a summary of the recording parameters                    |
|     indices|  determine and display index offsets                           |
|     catalog|  retrieve and display the media catalog number MCN             |
|         mcn|  retrieve and display the media catalog number MCN             |
|     trackid|  retrieve and display all Intern. Standard Recording Codes ISRC|
|        isrc|  retrieve and display all Intern. Standard Recording Codes ISRC|
|     sectors|  show the table of contents in start sector notation           |
|      titles|  show the table of contents with track titles (when available) |
|audio-tracks|  list the audio tracks and their start sectors                 |
|____________|________________________________________________________________|

          The default verbose-level is toc,summary,sectors,titles
          .

     -w

     -wait
          waits for signal, then start recording.

     -x

     -max sets maximum (CD) quality.

  SCSI options
     dev=device

     -D device

     -device device
          uses device as the source for CDDA reading.  For  exam-
          ple  /dev/cdrom  for  the  cooked_ioctl  interface  and
          Bus,ID,Lun for the generic_scsi interface.  The  device
          has  to  correspond with the interface setting if given
          (see -I and -interface option below).

          If no -I or -interface option has been  specified,  the
          interface  setting is derived from the device name syn-
          tax. A device name that is in the  form  Bus,ID,Lun  or
          contains  a  colon  (':')  defaults to the generic_scsi
          interface.

          Using the cooked_ioctl is not recommended as this makes
          cdda2wav  mainly depend on the audio extraction quality
          of the operating system which is usually extremely bad.

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          For   this   reason,   avoid   using   parameters  like
          dev=/dev/cdrom for the device.

          The setting of the environment variable CDDA_DEVICE  is
          overridden by this option.

          If no dev= option is present, or  if  the  dev=  option
          only  contains  a  transport  specifier but no address,
          cdda2wav tries to scan the SCSI address space  for  CD-
          ROM  drives.   If exactly one is found, this is used by
          default.

          For more information, see the description of  the  dev=
          option from cdrecord(1).

     debug=#

     debug-scsi=#
          Set the debug level for the libscg SCSI OS  abstraction
          layer.

     kdebug=#

     kdebug-scsi=#

     kd=# Set the kernel debug level for the kernel driver called
          by the libscg SCSI OS abstraction layer. This option is
          not supported on all platforms.

     -scanbus
          Scan all SCSI devices on all SCSI buses and  print  the
          inquiry  strings.  This option may be used to find SCSI
          address  of  the  CD/DVD-Recorder  on  a  system.   The
          numbers  printed  out  as labels are computed by: bus *
          100 + target

     scgopts=list
          A comma separated list of SCSI options that are handled
          by  libscg.   The  implemented  options  may be uptated
          indepentendly  from   applications.    Currently,   one
          option:   ignore-resid  is  supported  to work around a
          Linux kernel bug.

     ts=# Set the maximum transfer size for a single SCSI command
          to #.  The syntax for the ts= option is the same as for
          cdrecord fs=# or sdd bs=#.

          If no ts= option has been specified, cdda2wav  defaults
          to a transfer size of 3 MB. If libscg gets lower values
          from the operating system, the value is reduced to  the
          maximum value that is possible with the current operat-
          ing system.  Sometimes, it may help to  further  reduce

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          the  transfer  size  or to enhance it, but note that it
          may take a long time to find a better value by  experi-
          menting with the ts= option.

          Some operating systems return wrong values for the max-
          imum  transfer  size.  If the transfer totally hangs or
          resets occur, it  may  be  appropriate  to  reduce  the
          transfer  size  to less than 64 kB or even less than 32
          kB.

     -V

     -verbose-scsi
          enable SCSI command logging to  the  console.  This  is
          mainly used for debugging.

     -Q

     -silent-scsi
          suppress SCSI command error  reports  to  the  console.
          This is mainly used for guis.

  OS Interface options
     -A auxdevice

     -auxdevice auxdevice
          uses auxdevice as CDROM drive  to  allow  to  send  the
          CDROMMULTISESSION   ioctl   on   Linux   although   the
          generic_scsi interface is in use.

     -I interface

     -interface interface
          specifies the interface to use for accessing the CDROM:

          generic_scsi
               for sending SCSI commands directly to the drive.

          cooked_ioctl
               for using the programming  interface  supplied  by
               the OS kernel.

          The latter is not recommended as it gives lower quality
          and only works on a limited number of platforms.

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     -interactive
          Go into interactive mode that reads commands from stdin
          and  writes  the textual replies to stderr, or the file
          descriptor specified by the out-fd option.   This  mode
          has  been  introduced  mainly  to  allow cdrecord to be
          called by gstreamer plugins.

          If cdda2wav was called with the option -interactive, it
          reads  the  TOC from the medium and then waits for com-
          mand input as if it has been issued a stop command.  If
          the  next  command  is  a  cont  command, then cdda2wav
          extracts the whole audio part of the  medium.   If  the
          next  command  is  a read command, then cdda2wav starts
          extracting from the position that was indicated by  the
          read command parameter.
____________________________________________________________________________
|Command|  Parameters           |  Description                             |
|_______|_______________________|__________________________________________|
| cont  |                       |  continue processing at current position |
| exit  |                       |  exit processing                         |
| help  |                       |  print command help and wait for input   |
| quit  |                       |  exit processing                         |
| read  |  sectors sector number|  read sectors starting from sector number|
| read  |  tracks track number  |  read sectors starting from track number |
| stop  |                       |  stop processing and wait for new input  |
|_______|_______________________|__________________________________________|

     out-fd=descriptor
          Redirect informational output to  the  file  descriptor
          named  by  descriptor.  The parameter descriptor speci-
          fies  a  UNIX  file  descriptor  number.   By  default,
          cdda2wav   sends   informational   output   to  stderr.
          Redirecting the informational  output  to  a  different
          file descriptor helps guis and other programs that call
          cdda2wav via pipes.

     audio-fd=descriptor
          In case that the file name for the audio data  file  is
          "-", redirect audio output to the file descriptor named
          by descriptor.  The parameter  descriptor  specifies  a
          UNIX  file  descriptor  number.   By  default, cdda2wav
          sends audio  data  to  stdout  if  the  output  is  not
          directed  into a file.  Redirecting the audio output to
          a different file descriptor helps guis and  other  pro-
          grams that call cdda2wav via pipes.

     -no-fork
          Do not fork for extended buffering. If -no-fork is used
          and cdda2wav is used to play back audio CDs in paranoia
          mode, the playback may be interrupted due  to  lack  of
          buffering.   On  the  other  hand, allowing cdda2wav to
          fork  will  increase   the   latency   time   for   the

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          -interactive mode.

     -e

     -echo
          copies audio data to the operating system's sound  dev-
          ice e.g.  /dev/dsp.

     sound-device=sounddevice
          set an alternate sound device to use for -e.

     -n sectors

     -sectors-per-request sectors
          reads sectors per request.

     -l buffers

     -buffers-in-ring buffers
          uses a ring buffer with buffers total.


ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

     Some defaults for cdda2wav are compiled in and depend on the
     Makefile others on the environment variable settings.

     CDDA_DEVICE
          is used to set the device name. The  device  naming  is
          compatible with cdrecord(1).

     CDDBP_SERVER
          is used for cddbp title lookups when supplied.

     CDDBP_PORT
          is used for cddbp title lookups when supplied.

     RSH  If the RSH environment variable is present, the  remote
          connection  will not be created via rcmd(3) but by cal-
          ling  the  program  pointed  to  by  RSH.    Use   e.g.
          RSH=/usr/bin/ssh to create a secure shell connection.

          Note that this forces cdda2wav to create a pipe to  the
          rsh(1)  program  and  disallows  cdda2wav  to  directly
          access the network socket to the remote  server.   This
          makes  it  impossible  to set up performance parameters
          and slows down the connection compared to a  root  ini-
          tiated rcmd(3) connection.

     RSCSI
          If the  RSCSI  environment  variable  is  present,  the
          remote   SCSI   server   will   not   be   the  program
          /opt/schily/sbin/rscsi but the program  pointed  to  by

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          RSCSI.   Note  that the remote SCSI server program name
          will be ignored if you log in using an account that has
          been created with a remote SCSI server program as login
          shell.


EXIT STATUS

     cdda2wav uses the following exit codes to  indicate  various
     degrees of success:
_______________________________________________________________________________
|Exitcode|  Description                                                       |
|________|____________________________________________________________________|
|       0|  no errors encountered, successful operation.                      |
|       1|  usage or syntax error. cdda2wav got inconsistent arguments.       |
|       2|  permission (un)set errors. permission changes failed.             |
|       3|  read errors on the cdrom/burner device encountered.               |
|       4|  write errors while writing one of the output files encountered.   |
|       5|  errors with soundcard handling (initialization/write).            |
|       6|  errors with stat() system call on the read device (cooked ioctl). |
|       7|  pipe communication errors encountered (in forked mode).           |
|       8|  signal handler installation errors encountered.                   |
|       9|  allocation of shared memory failed (in forked mode).              |
|      10|  dynamic heap memory allocation failed.                            |
|      11|  errors on the audio cd medium encountered.                        |
|      12|  device open error in ioctl handling detected.                     |
|      13|  race condition in ioctl interface handling detected.              |
|      14|  error in ioctl() operation encountered.                           |
|      15|  internal error encountered. Please report back!!!                 |
|      16|  error in semaphore operation encountered (install / request).     |
|      17|  could not get the scsi transfer buffer.                           |
|      18|  could not create pipes for process communication (in forked mode).|
|________|____________________________________________________________________|


DISCUSSION

     cdda2wav is able to read parts of an audio CD or  multimedia
     CDROM  (containing  audio  parts)  directly digitally. These
     parts can be written to a file, a pipe, or to a  sound  dev-
     ice.

     cdda2wav stands for CDDA to WAV (where CDDA stands for  com-
     pact  disc  digital  audio  and WAV is a sound sample format
     introduced by MS Windows).  It  allows  copying  CDDA  audio
     data  from  the CDROM drive into a file in WAV or other for-
     mats.

     Some versions of cdda2wav may try to  get  higher  real-time
     scheduling   priorities  to  ensure  smooth  (uninterrupted)
     operation. These priorities are available  for  super  users
     and are higher than those of 'normal' processes. Thus delays
     are minimized.

     If you only have one CDROM and it is loaded  with  an  audio
     CD,  you  may  simply invoke cdda2wav and it will create the

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     sound file audio.wav recording  the  whole  track  beginning
     with track 1 in stereo at 16 bit at 44100 Hz sample rate, if
     your file system has enough space free.  Otherwise recording
     time  will  be  limited.  For  details  see files README and
     README.INSTALL.

     If you have more then one CD-ROM type drive in  the  system,
     you need to specify the dev= option.


HINTS ON OPTIONS

     Most of the options are used to control the  format  of  the
     WAV  file.  In the following text most of them are discussed
     in a more verbose way.

  Select Device
     dev=device selects the CDROM drive device to be  used.   The
     specifier  given should correspond to the selected interface
     (see below).  For the cooked_ioctl  interface  this  is  the
     cdrom  device  descriptor.   The  SCSI devices used with the
     generic SCSI interface  however  are  addressed  with  their
     SCSI-Bus,  SCSI-Id, and SCSI-Lun instead of the generic SCSI
     device descriptor. One example for a SCSI CDROM drive on bus
     0 with SCSI ID 3 and lun 0 is dev=0,3,0.

  Select Auxiliary device
     -A auxdevice may be needed in some rare cases  for  CD-Extra
     handling.   Cdda2wav  usually  has  no  problem  to  get the
     multi-session information for CD-Extra using raw  SCSI  com-
     mands.  For Non-SCSI-CDROM drives this is the same device as
     given by dev= (see above). For SCSI-CDROM drives it  is  the
     CDROM  drive (SCSI) device (i.e. /dev/sr0 ) corresponding to
     the SCSI device (i.e.  0,3,0 ). It has to match  the  device
     used for sampling.

  Select Interface
     -I interface selects the CDROM drive  communication  method.
     This  interface  method  is typically automatically selected
     from the device name.  For SCSI drives generic_scsi is  used
     (cooked_ioctl  may not be available for all devices).  Valid
     names are generic_scsi and cooked_ioctl.  The first uses the
     generic  SCSI  interface,  the  latter uses the ioctl of the
     CDROM driver. The latter variant works only when the  kernel
     driver  supports  CDDA  reading. This entry has to match the
     selected CDROM device (see above).

  Enable echo to soundcard
     -e copies audio data to the sound card while  recording,  so
     you  hear  it  nearly simultaneously. The soundcard gets the
     same data that is recorded. This is  time  critical,  so  it
     works  best with the -q option.  To use cdda2wav as a pseudo
     CD player without recording in a file you could use

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     cdda2wav -q -e -t2 -d0 -N

     to play the whole second track or

     cdda2wav -q -e -B -N

     to play the whole disk.  This feature reduces the  recording
     speed to at most onefold speed.

  Change pitch of echoed audio
     -p percentage changes the pitch of all  audio  echoed  to  a
     sound  card. Only the copy to the soundcard is affected, the
     recorded audio samples in a file remain  the  same.   Normal
     pitch, which is the default, is given by 100.  Lower percen-
     tages correspond to lower pitches, i.e.   -p  50  transposes
     the  audio  output  one  octave  lower.  See also the script
     pitchplay as an example. This option was contributed by Raul
     Sobon.

  Select mono or stereo recording
     -m or -c 1 selects mono recording (both stereo channels  are
     mixed), -s or -c 2 or -c s selects stereo recording. Parame-
     ter s will swap both sound channels.

  Select maximum quality
     -x will set stereo, 16 bits per sample at 44.1 kHz (full  CD
     quality).   Note  that  other format options given later can
     change this setting.

  Select sample quality
     -b 8 specifies 8 bit (1 Byte) for each sample in each  chan-
     nel; -b 12 specifies 12 bit (2 Byte) for each sample in each
     channel; -b 16 specifies 16 bit (2 Byte) for each sample  in
     each  channel  (Ensure that your sample player or sound card
     is capable of playing 12-bit or 16-bit  samples).  Selecting
     12 or 16 bits doubles file size.  12-bit samples are aligned
     to 16-bit samples, so they waste some disk space.

  Select sample rate
     -r samplerate selects a sample rate.  samplerate can be in a
     range  between  900 and 44100. Option -R lists all available
     rates.

  Select sample rate divider
     -a divider selects a sample rate divider.   divider  can  be
     from  1 to 50.5 in steps of 0.5.  Option -R lists all avail-
     able rates.

     To make the sound smoother at lower sampling rates, cdda2wav
     sums  over  n samples (where n is the specific dividend). So
     for 22050 Hertz output we have to sum over  2  samples,  for
     900  Hertz  we  have  to  sum over 49 samples.  This cancels

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     higher frequencies. Standard sector  size  of  an  audio  CD
     (ignoring additional information) is 2352 Bytes. In order to
     finish summing for an output sample at sector boundaries the
     rates  above have to be chosen.  Arbitrary sampling rates in
     high quality would require some interpolation scheme,  which
     needs much more sophisticated programming.

  List a table of all sampling rates
     -R shows a list of all  sample  rates  and  their  dividers.
     Dividers can range from 1 to 50.5 in steps of 0.5.

  Select start track and optionally end track
     -t n+m selects n as the start track and optionally m as  the
     last  track of a range to be recorded.  These tracks must be
     from the table of  contents.   This  sets  the  track  where
     recording  begins. Recording can advance through the follow-
     ing tracks as well (limited by the  optional  end  track  or
     otherwise  depending on recording time). Whether one file or
     different files are then created depends on  the  -B  option
     (see below).

  Select start index
     -i n selects the index to  start  recording  with.   Indices
     other  than 1 will invoke the index scanner, which will take
     some time to find the correct start position. An offset  may
     be given additionally (see below).

  Set recording duration
     -d  n sets recording time to n seconds or set recording time
     for  whole track if n is zero. In order to specify the dura-
     tion in frames (sectors) also,  the  argument  can  have  an
     appended  'f'. Then the numerical argument is to be taken as
     frames (sectors) rather than seconds.  Please note  that  if
     track  ranges  are being used they define the recording time
     as well thus overriding any -d option specified times.

     Recording time is defined as the time the  generated  sample
     will  play  (at the defined sample rate). Since it's related
     to the amount of generated samples, it's not the time of the
     sampling  process  itself (which can be less or more).  It's
     neither strictly coupled with the time  information  on  the
     audio  CD  (shown  by your hifi CD player).  Differences can
     occur by the usage of the -o option (see below). Notice that
     recording  time  will be shortened, unless enough disk space
     exists. Recording can be aborted at anytime by pressing  the
     break character (signal SIGQUIT).

  Record all tracks of a complete audio CD in separate files
     -B copies each track into a separate file. A base  name  can
     be  given.  File  names have an appended track number and an
     extension corresponding to the audio format. To  record  all
     audio  tracks  of a CD, use a sufficient high duration (i.e.

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     -d99999).

  Set start sector offset
     -o sectors increments start sector of the track by  sectors.
     By  this option you are able to skip a certain amount at the
     beginning of a track so you can pick exactly  the  part  you
     want.  Each  sector  runs for 1/75 seconds, so you have very
     fine control. If your offset is so high that  it  would  not
     fit  into the current track, a warning message is issued and
     the offset is ignored.  Recording time is not reduced.   (To
     skip  introductory  quiet passages automagically, use the -w
     option see below.)

  Wait for signal option
     -w Turning on this option will suppress all silent output at
     startup,  reducing  possibly file size.  cdda2wav will watch
     for any signal in the output signal and switches on  writing
     to file.

  Find extreme samples
     -F Turning on this option will display the most negative and
     the  most  positive  sample value found during recording for
     both channels.  This  can  be  useful  for  readjusting  the
     volume.  The values shown are not reset at track boundaries,
     they cover the complete sampling  process.  They  are  taken
     from  the  original  samples  and have the same format (i.e.
     they are independent of the selected output format).

  Find if input samples are in mono
     -G If this option is given, input samples for both  channels
     will  be  compared.  At the end of the program the result is
     printed. Differences in the channels indicate stereo, other-
     wise when both channels are equal it will indicate mono.

  Undo the pre-emphasis in the input samples
     -T Some older audio CDs are recorded with  a  modified  fre-
     quency response called pre-emphasis. This is found mostly in
     classical recordings. The correction  can  be  seen  in  the
     flags  of the Table Of Contents often. But there are record-
     ings, that show this setting only  in  the  subchannels.  If
     this  option  is  given,  the index scanner will be started,
     which reads the q-subchannel of each track. If  pre-emphasis
     is  indicated in the q-subchannel of a track, but not in the
     TOC, pre-emphasis will be assumed to be present, and  subse-
     quently  a  reverse  filtering is done for this track before
     the samples are written into the audio file.

  Set audio format
     -O  audiotype can be wav (for wav files) or au or  sun  (for
     sun  PCM  files)  or  cdr or raw (for headerless files to be
     used for cd writers).  All file samples are coded in  linear
     pulse  code  modulation  (as  done in the audio compact disc

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     format). This holds for all audio formats.   Wav  files  are
     compatible  to  Wind*ws  sound files, they have lsb,msb byte
     order which is the opposite byte order to the  one  used  on
     the audio cd. The default filename extension is '.wav'.  Sun
     type files are not like  the  older  common  logarithmically
     coded  .au  files, but instead as mentioned above linear PCM
     is used. The byte order is msb,lsb  to  be  compatible.  The
     default filename extension is '.au'.  The AIFF and the newer
     variant AIFC from the Apple/SGI world store their samples in
     bigendian  format (msb,lsb). In AIFC no compression is used.
     Finally the easiest 'format', the cdr aka raw format. It  is
     done  per default in msb,lsb byte order to satisfy the order
     wanted by most cd writers. Since there is no header informa-
     tion in this format, the sample parameters can only be iden-
     tified by playing the samples on a soundcard or similar. The
     default filename extension is '.cdr' or '.raw'.

  Select cdrom drive reading speed
     -S  speed allows to switch the  cdrom  drive  to  a  certain
     speed  in  order  to  reduce  read  errors.  The argument is
     transferred verbatim to the drive.  Details depend very much
     on  the cdrom drives.  An argument of 0 for example is often
     the default speed of the drive, a value of 1  often  selects
     single speed.

  Enable MD5 checksums
     -M  count enables calculation of MD-5 checksum  for  'count'
     bytes from the beginning of a track. This was introduced for
     quick comparisons of tracks.

  Use Monty's libparanoia for reading of sectors
     -paranoia selects an alternate way of extracting audio  sec-
     tors.  Monty's  library  is  used with the following default
     options:

     PARANOIA_MODE_FULL, but without PARANOIA_MODE_NEVERSKIP

     for details see Monty's libparanoia documentation.  In  this
     case the option -P has no effect.

  Do linear or overlapping reading of sectors
     (This applies unless option -paranoia is used.)  -P  sectors
     sets  the  given  number of sectors for initial overlap sam-
     pling for jitter  correction.  Two  cases  are  to  be  dis-
     tinguished.  For nonzero values, some sectors are read twice
     to enable cdda2wav's jitter correction.  If an  argument  of
     zero  is  given,  no  overlap  sampling  will  be used.  For
     nonzero overlap sectors  cdda2wav  dynamically  adjusts  the
     setting during sampling (like cdparanoia does).  If no match
     can be found, cdda2wav retries the read  with  an  increased
     overlap.   If the amount of jitter is lower than the current
     overlapped samples, cdda2wav reduces  the  overlap  setting,

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     resulting in a higher reading speed.  The argument given has
     to be lower than the total number  of  sectors  per  request
     (see option -n below).  Cdda2wav will check this setting and
     issues a error message otherwise.  The case of zero  sectors
     is  nice on low load situations or errorfree (perfect) cdrom
     drives and perfect (unscratched) audio cds.

  Set the transfer size
     -n  sectors will set the transfer size to the specified sec-
     tors per request.

  Set number of ring buffer elements
     -l  buffers will  allocate  the  specified  number  of  ring
     buffer elements.

  Set endianess of input samples
     -C  endianess will override  the  default  settings  of  the
     input  format.  Endianess can be set explicitly to "little",
     "big" or "machine" or to the automatic  endianess  detection
     based on voting with "guess".

  Set endianess of output samples
     -E   endianess  (endianess  can  be   "little",   "big"   or
     "machine")  will override the default settings of the output
     format.

  Verbose option
     -v  itemlist prints more information. A list  allows  selec-
     tion of different information items.

     help      Print a summary of possible members  of  the  dif-
               fopts list.

     !         Invert the meaning of  the  following  string.  No
               comma is needed after the exclamation mark.

     not       Invert the meaning of all members in the  diffopts
               list i.e. exclude all present options from an ini-
               tially complete  set  compare  list.   When  using
               csh(1)  you  might have problems with ! due to its
               strange parser.  This is why the not alias exists.

     disable   disables verbosity

     all       all information is given

     toc       displays the table of contents

     summary   displays a summary of recording parameters

     indices   invokes  the  index  scanner  and  displays  start

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User Commands                                         CDDA2WAV(1)

               positions of indices

     catalog   retrieves and displays a media catalog number

     trackid   retrieves  and  displays  international   standard
               recording codes

     sectors   displays track start positions in absolute  sector
               notation

     To  combine  several  requests  just  list  the   suboptions
     separated with commas.

  The table of contents
     The display will show the table of contents with  number  of
     tracks   and  total  time  (displayed  in  mm:ss.hh  format,
     mm=minutes, ss=seconds, hh=rounded 1/100 seconds).  The fol-
     lowing  list  displays  track number and track time for each
     entry.  The summary gives a line per  track  describing  the
     type of the track.

         track preemphasis copypermitted tracktype chans

     The track column holds the track number.  preemphasis  shows
     if  that  track  has  been  given  a  non  linear  frequency
     response.  NOTE: You  can  undo  this  effect  with  the  -T
     option.   copy-permitted  indicates if this track is allowed
     to copy.  tracktype can be data or audio. On multimedia  CDs
     (except  hidden  track  CDs) both of them should be present.
     channels is defined for audio tracks only. There can be  two
     or four channels.

  No file output
     -N this debugging option switches off writing to a file.

  No infofile generation
     -H this option switches off creation of an info file  and  a
     cddb file.

  Generation of simple output for gui frontends
     -g this option switches on simple line formatting, which  is
     needed to support gui frontends (like xcd-roast).

  Verbose SCSI logging
     -V this option switches on logging of  SCSI  commands.  This
     will  produce  a  lot of output (when SCSI devices are being
     used).  This is needed for debugging purposes. The format is
     the  same  as  being  used  with  the  cdrecord program, see
     cdrecord(1) for more information.

  Quiet option
     -q suppresses all screen output except error messages.  That

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     reduces cpu time resources.

  Just show information option
     -J does not write a file, it only prints  information  about
     the  disc  (depending  on  the  -v option). This is just for
     information purposes.


CDDBP support

  Lookup album and track titles option
     -L  cddbp mode Cdda2wav tries to retrieve performer, album-,
     and  track  titles  from  a cddbp server. The default server
     right now is 'freedb.freedb.org'.  It  is  planned  to  have
     more  control over the server handling later.  The parameter
     defines how multiple entries are handled:

     0    interactive mode, the user chooses one of the entries.

     1    take the first entry without asking.

  Set server for title lookups
     cddbp-server  servername When using -L or -cddb, the  server
     being contacted can be set with this option.

  Set portnumber for title lookups
     cddbp-port  portnumber When using -L or  -cddb,  the  server
     port being contacted can be set with this option.


HINTS ON USAGE

     Don't create samples you cannot read. First check your  sam-
     ple  player  software and sound card hardware. I experienced
     problems with very low sample rates (stereo <= 1575 Hz, mono
     <=  3675  Hz)  when  trying  to  play them with standard WAV
     players for sound blaster (maybe they are not legal  in  WAV
     format). Most CD-Writers insist on audio samples in a bigen-
     dian format.  Now cdda2wav supports the -E  endianess option
     to control the endianess of the written samples.

     If your hardware is fast enough  to  run  cdda2wav  uninter-
     rupted  and  your CD drive is one of the 'perfect' ones, you
     will gain speed when switching all overlap sampling off with
     the  -P   0 option. Further fine tuning can be done with the
     -n  sectors option. You can specify how much sectors  should
     be requested in one go.

     Cdda2wav supports  pipes.   Use  a  filename  of  -  to  let
     cdda2wav output its samples to standard output.

     Conversion to other sound formats is possible using the  sox
     program package (it should no longer be necessary to use sox
     -x to change the byte order of samples;  see  option  -E  to
     change the output byteorder).

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     If you want to sample more than  one  track  into  different
     files  in  one  run,  this is currently possible with the -B
     option. When recording time exceeds the track  limit  a  new
     file will be opened for the next track.


FILES

     Cdda2wav can generate a lot of files for various purposes.

  Audio files:
     There are audio files containing samples with default exten-
     sions  .wav,  .au,  .aifc,  .aiff, and .cdr according to the
     selected sound format.  These files are not  generated  when
     option (-N) is given. Multiple files may be written when the
     bulk copy option (-B) is used. Individual file names can  be
     given  as  arguments.  If  the number of file names given is
     sufficient to cover all  included  audio  tracks,  the  file
     names  will  be used verbatim.  Otherwise, if there are less
     file names than files needed to write the  included  tracks,
     the  part  of the file name before the extension is extended
     with '_dd' where dd represents the current track number.

  Cddb and Cdindex files:
     If cdda2wav detects cd-extra or cd-text (album/track)  title
     information, then .cddb, .cdindex and .cdtext files are gen-
     erated unless suppressed by the  option  -H.   They  contain
     suitable  formatted entries for submission to audio cd track
     title databases in the Internet. The  CDINDEX  and  CDDB(tm)
     systems are currently supported. For more information please
     visit www.musicbrainz.org and www.freedb.com.

  Inf files:
     The inf files describe the sample files and the part of  the
     audio  cd  it  was  taken from. They are a means to transfer
     information to a cd burning program like cdrecord. For exam-
     ple,  if the original audio cd had pre-emphasis enabled, and
     cdda2wav -T did remove the pre-emphasis, then the  inf  file
     has pre-emphasis not set (since the audio file does not have
     it anymore), while the .cddb  and  the  .cdindex  have  pre-
     emphasis set as the original does.


WARNING

     IMPORTANT: it is prohibited to sell  copies  of  copyrighted
     material  by  noncopyright  holders. This program may not be
     used to circumvent copyrights.  The user  acknowledges  this
     constraint when using the software.


BUGS

     The index scanner may give timeouts.

     The resampling (rate conversion code) uses polynomial inter-
     polation, which is not optimal.

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User Commands                                         CDDA2WAV(1)

     Cdda2wav should use threads.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

     Thanks  go  to  Project  MODE   (http://www.mode.net/)   and
     Fraunhofer  Institut  fuer integrierte Schaltungen (FhG-IIS)
     (http://www.iis.fhg.de/)  for  financial  support.   Plextor
     Europe  and  Ricoh  Japan  provided cdrom disk drives and cd
     burners which helped a lot to develop this software.   Rammi
     has  helped  a  lot  with  the debugging and showed a lot of
     stamina when hearing 100 times the first 16 seconds  of  the
     first  track  of  the Krupps CD.  Libparanoia contributed by
     Monty (Christopher Montgomery) xiphmont@mit.edu.


AUTHOR

     Heiko Eissfeldt heiko@colossus.escape.de (1993-2004,2015)

     2004-today:

     Joerg Schilling
     Seestr. 110
     D-13353 Berlin
     Germany


DATE

     2016/01/26


INTERFACE STABILITY

     The interfaces provided by cdda2wav are  designed  for  long
     term  stability.  As cdda2wav depends on interfaces provided
     by the underlying operating system,  the  stability  of  the
     interfaces offered by cdda2wav depends on the interface sta-
     bility of the OS interfaces. Modified interfaces in  the  OS
     may enforce modified interfaces in cdda2wav.

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