Schily's USER COMMANDS                          SFORMAT draft(1L)


NAME

     sformat - SCSI disk  formatting/partitioning/analysis/repair
     utility


SYNOPSIS

     sformat [options] target lun [scsibus]
     sformat [options]

     The first form will select the named disk directly.  Have  a
     look at the chapter about Following The Main Thread for more
     details.

     The second form will scan all SCSI busses and enter a selec-
     tion menu.  Have a look at the chapter about The SCSI Selec-
     tion Menu for more details.

     Sformat will never destroy or modify any data unless  expli-
     citly  confirmed  just  before  the  (possibly)  destructive
     action.  Have a look at the  chapter  about  How  To  Answer
     Questions first.


DESCRIPTION

     Sformat is the first SCSI disk formatting utility that  runs
     under  SunOS.   Long  before Sun decided that formatting and
     partitioning a disk from a stand alone program is less  con-
     venient than doing this job from a running UNIX, sformat has
     been available.

     Sformat leads the beginner through a thread menu and  allows
     the experienced user to do more things than he could do with
     other disk maintenance programs. All partitioning  jobs  can
     be done without the need for a desc calculator.

     If you want to do more than simple things, you should  care-
     fully  read  the  whole  manual.  It  contains many tips and
     tricks that will help you to recover disks that  would  have
     to  be  sent  back to the manufacturer for repair otherwise.
     Sformat includes the competence of more than  ten  years  in
     disk  handling  and  will  be able to repair more disks than
     other disk maintenance  programs.   Sformat  offers  special
     maintenance  tests  to  find  the  reason  for  complex disk
     failures.


Disk Database Entries

     Be  nice  to  other  users  of  sformat.   Create   database
     (sformat.dat)  entries  for  disks  that are not in the data
     base using the -Proto flag and  mail  them  to  the  author.
     This helps other users and you too.  See section on Creating
     Disk Database Entries below.

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OPTIONS

     -help, -h         Print a  summary  of  the  most  important
                       options for sformat.

     -xhelp            Print a summary of  less  frequently  used
                       options for sformat.

     -version          Prints the sformat version  number  string
                       and exists.

     -ask              Ask again at  certain  critical  sections.
                       This  will currently prompt before modify-
                       ing the disk when in repair mode.

     -auto, -a         autoformat mode (for production  systems).
                       When  this  option  is  in effect, sformat
                       will not ask whether to modify the  format
                       and  partition  parameters  and  will only
                       format disks that are known  in  the  data
                       base.   There will be only one question to
                       answer.  This will immediately  start  the
                       formatting   process.   The  -auto  option
                       enables certain  additional  verifications
                       that  will guarantee that the disks have a
                       known firmware release and will inform the
                       user that the disk is bad if certain qual-
                       ity tests failed.  The disk  will  not  be
                       formatted  if  the  signature  code in the
                       data base is bad.   This  option  has  not
                       been verified during the last three years.
                       If you need this mode ask the  author  for
                       additional verification of the code.

     Cveri=#, C=#      Number of blocks/verify.  Sformat normally
                       will  try  to verify 1000 sectors with one
                       SCSI command. Some old disk  firmware  may
                       not  able  to deal with a number that will
                       imply to read a  number  of  sectors  that
                       will  not  fit  in the local memory of the
                       disk.

     CWveri=#, CW=#    Number of blocks/write-verify.  The  limi-
                       tation noted with the Cveri option applies
                       here again and even on newer disks.

     data=name         Name  of  disk  database  file   (default:
                       'sformat.dat').   Use this option to force
                       sformat to use a different  disk  database
                       than  the  default.   In any case, sformat
                       will  search  in  the  current   directory
                       first.  If no file of the appropriate name
                       was  found  in  the   current   directory,

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                       sformat looks in the following path:
                       /opt schily/etc, /etc, /usr/etc.

     debug=#, -d       Set  the  misc  debug  value  to  #  (with
                       debug=#) or increment the misc debug level
                       by one (with -d). If you specify -dd, this
                       equals to debug=2.

     kdebug=#, kd=#    Tell the scg-driver to modify  the  kernel
                       debug  value  while SCSI commands are run-
                       ning.

     xdebug=#, xd=#    Set the debug level for the parser of  the
                       external disk database.

     -defmodes         Get default  mode  parameters  from  disk.
                       Normally  sformat  retrieves  the  default
                       modes parameters from the disk by  default
                       when the disk is unformatted or has no sun
                       label and the current  mode  parameter  if
                       the  disk  has  a  valid  sun label.  This
                       option tells sformat retrieve the  default
                       mode parameters in any case.

     -dmdl             Do not use manufacturer defect  list  when
                       formatting  a  disk.   This implies that a
                       disk that is formatted  with  this  option
                       will  have  bad blocks. However some disks
                       that may  not  be  formatted  because  the
                       manufacturer  defect  list  is  broken may
                       become usable again when this option is in
                       effect.

     ESDI=#            Pass ESDI command # to the drive and print
                       the  result.   This  will  only work if an
                       EMULEX MD21 SCSI/ESDI bridge controller is
                       present.

     -force            Force to continue at certain errors.  This
                       will  currently  prompt  after  the format
                       command fails.

     -greassign        Reassign blocks.  This is the  guru  mode,
                       don't  use  this. Read the description for
                       the -reassign  option  for  more  details.
                       This  option  will simply prompt for block
                       numbers and then reassign them  regardless
                       of  if  they need to be reassigned or not.
                       On some disks the block  may  seem  to  be
                       defective   even   after   reassigning  it
                       because the old data is copied to the  new
                       location  without recomputing the CRC.  On

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                       other disk the  old  data  will  be  lost.
                       These  problems  will not arise if you use
                       the -reassign option instead.

     -ign_not_found    Ignore record not found errors while veri-
                       fying  the  disk.   This  option is useful
                       when trying  to  repair  disks  with  many
                       defects  (see  maxbad  option).  Some disk
                       errors may cause the whole track to appear
                       bad.  If the reported error in these cases
                       is record not found, You should first  try
                       to  repair as many blocks as possible with
                       this option in effect and then repair  the
                       remaining blocks without this option.

     -inq              Retrieve and print SCSI inquiry  data  for
                       any type of device. This is useful even on
                       tape drives and scanners.

     maxbad=#          When sformat is doing a  surface  analysis
                       after  formatting  the disk, it collects a
                       number of bad blocks (usually up to 1023),
                       then reassigns them and then reformats the
                       disk to guarantee that the disk speed will
                       not be reduced by mapped bad blocks.  Some
                       disks with many defective blocks will seem
                       to  have  more  defective blocks than they
                       really have,  but  these  false  defective
                       blocks  need  not  to be reassigned.  This
                       case may be triggered if a defective block
                       directly  follows the index.  In this case
                       the whole track seems to be bad.   If  you
                       tell  sformat  to  reformat the disk after
                       repairing one bad block  (maxbad=1),  this
                       problem will go away.

     -modes            Intercative   modesense/modeselect.   Each
                       mode page exists in 4 versions:
                       default  (PROM),  current   (RAM),   saved
                       (DISK) and changeable (BITMASK).
                       You may currently view  any  page  if  you
                       specify   the   page   number.    This  is
                       currently under construction.

     -noformat         Force not to format disk even when format-
                       ting  of the disk has been confirmed. This
                       option may be used to modify mode  parame-
                       ters without formatting the disk.

     -nomap            Do not map SCSI address  to  logical  disk
                       name.  WARNING:   If  you use this option,
                       sformat is not able to check  whether  the

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                       disk has mounted partitions. This may dam-
                       age mounted file systems.

     -noparity         Try to disable parity checking on all SCSI
                       commands  that  are  sent by sformat. This
                       may not be possible in all implementations
                       of the scg-driver.

     -nowait           Do not wait  after  formatting  the  disk.
                       Normally, sformat will prompt for a modif-
                       ication of the disk  label  and  partition
                       table  before starting to verify the disk.
                       If this option is in effect, sformat  will
                       immediately start to verify the disk after
                       formatting.

     -no_defaults      Do not set  heuristic  defaults.  If  this
                       option  is  in effect, all disk parameters
                       must be either retrievable from  disk  or,
                       if not available, provided by the user.

     -prdefect         Get and print defect  data.  This  may  be
                       used  to  print the manufacturer and grown
                       defect list that is stored on the disk.

     -prgeom           Get and print geometry data.  This  is  an
                       old  option  but  it  is useful to get all
                       mode pages  that  are  supported  by  this
                       disk.

     -prcurgeom        Get and print geometry data. This is basi-
                       cally  the  same  as  -prgeom  except that
                       -prgeom  will  obtain  the  default   mode
                       pages,  -prcurgeom will report the current
                       values.

     -Proto            This option will cause sformat to generate
                       a  data  base  entry for the current disk.
                       Make sure that this data base  entry  will
                       be generated with the correct format time.
                       Sformat is able to compute a  format  time
                       from  the  disk  geometry, but newer disks
                       seem to need more time than computed.   If
                       the  format time is too short, the format-
                       ting may be aborted and the disk will  not
                       be  accessible  until formatted again com-
                       pletely.

     -r                reformat only mode (gives less messages on
                       label menu)

     -randrw           The random read/write test is a method  to

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                       find  problems  that  may  be  a result of
                       first seeking to a new place on  disk  and
                       then  writing  data  to  it  as it is fre-
                       quently done  by  the  unix  file  system.
                       This  is  usually  caused  by  an inode or
                       super block update.   The  above  problems
                       may  be  a  result  of bad bearings in the
                       disk.  If the disk does not produce errors
                       while  this test is running, there will no
                       harm to the data on disk. However, if  you
                       assume  that  the disk is bad, the data on
                       disk may get corrupted.  To  minimize  the
                       risk  of  data  loss, the first block con-
                       taining the disk label (partition) and the
                       last  block  containing  the sinfo data (a
                       sformat specific area) will never be writ-
                       ten to.

     -reassign         Reassign a list  of  blocks  sformat  will
                       prompt for.  This is the preferred command
                       when trying to repair a block or a list of
                       blocks with already known block addresses.
                       If you don't know the address of a  defec-
                       tive block, use the -repair option.  Sfor-
                       mat will first try to read the old content
                       of  the  defective  block  and then try to
                       refresh the data by writing the  old  data
                       to the block.  If it fails to write to the
                       block, sformat will reassign the defective
                       block.  If the block does not cause errors
                       after rewriting the data  in  it,  sformat
                       will ask if the block should be reassigned
                       anyway.  NOTE: there  are  many  cases  in
                       which  a  block  seems to be defective but
                       actually is not.  If for any  reason,  the
                       disk will be powered off during writing or
                       if there is electro magnetic noise the CRC
                       for  a block may get corrupted without any
                       physical harm to the magnetic media. These
                       cases  can be repaired by writing again to
                       the block.

     -refresh_only     Sformat will not try to reassign  a  block
                       that still fails after rewriting (refresh-
                       ing) the data in it.  This option is  use-
                       ful  in conjunction with the -reassign and
                       the -repair option.

     -repair           This is a combination of the  -verify  and
                       -reassign option.  Sformat will first ver-
                       ify the disk and then use the list of  bad
                       sectors found to repair the disk.

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     RW=#              Number of random R/W loops  that  is  used
                       with  the  -randrw option.  The default is
                       the number  of  physical  sectors  /  100.
                       This  will not last too long and is enough
                       to cover every cylinder of the disk.

     -scsi_compliant   Be as  SCSI-compliant  as  possible.  This
                       will  some  old  disk  cause  to  fail  in
                       reporting mode pages correctly and may  be
                       used to see if a disk has these problems.

     -seek             Do random or full stroke seek tests on the
                       disk. This is done by reading data; trying
                       to do full stroke seek tests my be  impos-
                       sible because of the cache of the disk.

     -setmodes         Do a SCSI modeselect with all  parameters,
                       that  would have been necessary for a for-
                       mat, but do not  format  the  disk.   This
                       allows  to modify the mode pages of a disk
                       without  reformatting  it.   If  the  -smp
                       option  is  used in conjunction with -set-
                       modes the  mode  parameters  will  not  be
                       saved.  In  this case, the mode parameters
                       of the  disk  will  return  to  their  old
                       values if a reset or a power cycle occurs.

     -silent, -s       Do not print out the status of failed com-
                       mands.

     -smp              Do not try to save  mode  parameters  when
                       setting  them.  This option is useful if a
                       nearly totally damaged disk must be refor-
                       matted.  Some  disk  controllers,  in this
                       case will reject to format the disk if the
                       area  on  disk  where  this  data  will be
                       stored is not accessible before formatting
                       the disk.

     -start            Send a SCSI START UNIT command to the dev-
                       ice.  This will normally spin up the spin-
                       dle motor of a disk.

     -stop             Send a SCSI STOP UNIT command to the  dev-
                       ice.  This  will  normally  spin  down the
                       spindle motor of a disk.

     timeout=#         This option will set  the  default  kernel
                       timeout  for  all  SCSI  commands that are
                       send by sformat to # seconds. The  default
                       value is 20 seconds.  This option does not
                       affect the timeout for the format command.

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     -tr, -t           This is an option that is only useful with
                       old   Adaptec   SCSI  bridge  controllers.
                       These controllers are  not  able  to  deal
                       with logical sector numbers in some cases.
                       Therefore  these  numbers   have   to   be
                       translated  to  the cylinder/head/bfi form
                       before.  This is done by  seeking  to  the
                       named block and reading the sector header.
                       It may fail if the block has a bad  sector
                       header.

     VL=#              Set the number of verify passes  that  are
                       done  after  formatting  a  disk to #. The
                       default value is 5.  In write verify mode,
                       this  number  is  doubled  because sformat
                       will alternate write verify and read  ver-
                       ify passes in this case.

     -verbose, -v      outdated verbose option for SCSI commands.

     -V                Increment the verbose level in respect  of
                       SCSI command transport by one.  This helps
                       to debug problems with SCSI  commands.  If
                       you  get  incomprehensible  error messages
                       you should  use  this  flag  to  get  more
                       detailed   output.   -VV  will  show  data
                       buffer content in addition.  Using  -V  or
                       -VV  slows down the process and may be the
                       reason for a buffer underrun.

     -verify           This options starts sformat in verify disk
                       (surface analysis) mode.  Verifying a disk
                       is  a  method  that  allows  to  scan  for
                       defects  without  modifying  data  on  the
                       disk.  In this mode, the  controller  will
                       read  the  disks without transferring data
                       to the computer while all  error  recovery
                       is disabled.

     Vstart=#          Set  the  first  block  for  the  -verify,
                       -repair, -randrw or the -seek option to #.
                       This is recommended when doing  a  surface
                       analysis  on large disks where is is known
                       that the bad sector is near the end of the
                       disk.

     Vend=#            Set  the  last  block  for  the   -verify,
                       -repair, -randrw or the -seek option to #.
                       This is recommended when doing  a  surface
                       analysis  on large disks where is is known
                       that the bad sectors are not at the end of
                       the disk.

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     -wrveri           If this option is used in while formatting
                       a  disk,  it tells sformat to write verify
                       the disk instead of only read verifying it
                       after formatting.  If it is used in combi-
                       nation with the  -verify  option,  sformat
                       will  write  verify the disk without prior
                       formatting.  In both cases, the  old  data
                       on  disk will be damaged.  Write verifying
                       a disk is recommended if the disk is older
                       than  two  years  or  has unusual defects.
                       Usual  defects   in   this   context   are
                       recovered  read  errors  and  defects that
                       disappear  when  simply  writing  to   the
                       defect sector.


How To Answer Questions

     There are four types of questions.

     o    Questions that can be answered with yes or no. Yes  may
          be  abbreviated  with  'y' or 'Y'.  These questions are
          always assumed to be answered with  no  if  you  simply
          enter  carriage  return.  NOTE:  the latter is always a
          safe answer. All questions  that  request  confirmation
          for  actions that may damage or modify data on disk are
          formed in such a way that answering  them  with  no  or
          carriage return will not harm any data.  All answers to
          this type of questions except [y]es or [Y]ES are inter-
          preted as if no has been entered.

     o    Questions that need a string as input.  If  you  simply
          enter  carriage  return  to  this  type of question, no
          modification of the default string will be done.

     o    Questions that need a word  selected  from  a  list  of
          valid words as input.  If you enter '?', you will get a
          list of possible input to that question.  Each word  is
          on  a separate line an (in some cases) is followed by a
          explanation how to use it.

     o    Questions that need a number within  a  certain  range.
          For  this  type  of  questions,  sformat  displays  the
          current value and the valid range in parenthesis.   The
          default  radix for numbers is ten. If you need to enter
          a hexadecimal number precede it with 0x if you need  to
          enter an octal number, precede it with 0.

          ^    Entering an accent circumflex  '^'  will  set  the
               value to the smallest possible

          $    Entering an dollar sign '$' will set the value  to
               the greatest possible

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          +    Entering a plus sign will  increment  the  current
               value by one.

          -    Entering a minus sign will decrement  the  current
               value by one.

          <CR> Entering a carriage return  will  not  modify  the
               current  value.   If  the default value is -1, you
               need to supply a valid  value  to  be  allowed  to
               leave the question menu.

     All questions that do not request a  simple  string  (second
     type of question) will accept a question mark '?' to display
     online help.


The SCSI Selection Menu

     When Sformat is started without or with insufficient parame-
     ters,  the  SCSI  menu mode is entered.  A typical output in
     this case looks like:

     sparky joerg > sformat
     sformat SCSI format/analysis/repair utilities
     Release 3.1, Copyright J. Schilling

     scg0 at esp0 initiator id 7
     scg1 at esp1 initiator id 7
     scsibus0:
     c0t0d0           0) 'Quantum ' 'XP34300         ' 'F76D' Disk
     c0t1d0           1) 'SEAGATE ' 'ST11200N        ' '8334' Disk
                      2) *
     c0t3d0           3) 'TOSHIBA ' 'MK537FB/        ' '6258' Disk
                      4) 'WANGTEK ' '5150ES SCSI-36  ' 'ESB6' Removable Tape
                      5) 'EXABYTE ' 'EXB-8500-85QUE  ' '0428' Removable Tape
                      6) 'TOSHIBA ' 'XM-3401TASUNSLCD' '3593' Removable CD-ROM
                      7) HOST ADAPTOR
     scsibus1:
     c1t0d0,c1t0d1   10) 'EMULEX  ' 'MD21/S2     ESDI' 'D00 ' Disk
                     11) *
     c1t2d0          12) 'Maxoptix' 'T3-1304         ' '1.1c' Removable Disk
                     13) *
                     14) *
                     15) *
                     16) *
                     17) HOST ADAPTOR
     Select target -1 (0 - 12)/<cr>:

     The line:

     c0t0d0           0) 'Quantum ' 'XP34300         ' 'F76D' Disk

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     shows the canonical logical disk name (in this case c0t0d0),
     the  menu  number, the SCSI inquiry string and a description
     of the device type that was found on this SCSI target.   The
     menu number is directly related to the SCSI target id of the
     device and the SCSI bus number.  Number 3 is SCSI target # 3
     on SCSI bus # 0.  Number 12 is SCSI target # 2 on SCSI bus #
     1.  Sformat is currently not able to deal with more  than  8
     targets on a bus.

     When selecting a target (.e.g. # 0), a logical  unit  selec-
     tion menu will be displayed.

     Select target -1 (0 - 6)/<cr>:0
     scsibus0 target 0:
     c0t0d0           0) 'Quantum ' 'XP34300         ' 'F76D' Disk
                      1) 'Quantum ' 'XP34300         ' 'F76D' unsupported
                      2) 'Quantum ' 'XP34300         ' 'F76D' unsupported
                      3) 'Quantum ' 'XP34300         ' 'F76D' unsupported
                      4) 'Quantum ' 'XP34300         ' 'F76D' unsupported
                      5) 'Quantum ' 'XP34300         ' 'F76D' unsupported
                      6) 'Quantum ' 'XP34300         ' 'F76D' unsupported
                      7) 'Quantum ' 'XP34300         ' 'F76D' unsupported
     Select lun -1 (0 - 7)/<cr>:

     The logical unit menu has the same  structure  as  the  SCSI
     target  menu.   If  the device description contains the word
     unsupported, the controller is not able to support a logical
     unit of this number.  If the device description contains the
     word unit not present, the controller is able to  support  a
     logical  unit of this number but there is actually no device
     connected.

     When selecting a specific logical unit, the main  thread  is
     entered  as if a complete SCSI target specification has been
     entered from the command line.


Following The Main Thread

     If the main formatting  thread  is  entered,  the  following
     stages are encountered:

     Mapping and checking
                         The first thing sformat does, is to  map
                         the SCSI target/lun/busid triplet into a
                         logical disk name and to check  if  some
                         part  of  the disk is currently mounted.
                         This mapping  will  be  skipped  if  the
                         -nomap  options  is  specified.   If the
                         disk is mounted, the user will be  asked
                         if it is ok to continue.
                         Note: this is currently the one and only
                         question.

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     Inquiry             The second action is getting the inquiry
                         data  from  the device.  The device type
                         is determined from this data.

     Test if device is ready
                         The next action is to test  whether  the
                         device is ready and to wait for the dev-
                         ice to become ready.  When the device is
                         ready, it is recalibrated.

     Exit for wrong device type
                         When the device is not a  disk,  a  worm
                         media  or  optical  memory, sformat ter-
                         minates.

     Read sinfo data     When the device is a disk, sformat tries
                         to  read  the  sinfo data from the disk.
                         This allows the user to see if the  dev-
                         ice  has  been  formatted  with  sformat
                         before. If so, sformat  will  print  out
                         the  number of reformats and the date of
                         the first and last format.  Sinfo is  .B
                         sformat  specific  data  that is hold on
                         the last block of the disk.

     Process special commands
                         If options tell sformat to take  special
                         actions (like -start or -prdefect), they
                         are done here.  Sformat terminates after
                         processing them.

     The formatting procedure starts
                         The next actions are in preparation  for
                         formatting   the  disk.   Several  other
                         things can be  done  from  this  thread.
                         Modifying  the  disk  label  will be one
                         example.  You need not  to  be  in  fear
                         that  following  this thread will modify
                         or harm data on the disk. There will  be
                         extra questions that secure this case.

     Test whether the disk is formatted
                         Several procedures differ if the disk is
                         already formatted and has a valid label.

     The next parts of the main thread will give you  some  ques-
     tions  to answer.  You may skip most of the questions if you
     do not want to modify anything.

     If some data that is definitely needed by sformat can not be
     determined  from  the  disk  or  the data base, sformat will
     force you to answer all questions of a group.  Sformat  will

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     only  ask question for parameters that are definitely needed
     or may be changed on the current disk. The  content  of  the
     menus differ from disk to disk.

     Read mode data
          Several mode pages of the disk are read.  This data and
          the  inquiry  data  is  used to search in the disk data
          base.
          Sformat asks:
          Ignore database disk parameters from 'sformat.dat'?
          If you don't want the data from the  data  base  to  be
          used,  negotiate  the appropriate question.  Some disks
          cannot be determined from the fetchable data.  This are
          mainly  disks that are connected to a bridge controller
          e.g.  a controller from ESDI to SCSI.  Sformat is  able
          to  detect  the  right  data in the data base for disks
          with changeable media e.g. optical disks  that  support
          different  media  with different capacity and geometry.
          If there is more than one possible entry for this  disk
          in the data base,
          sformat asks:
          Select alternate disk type?
          If the disk type menu is  entered,  all  possible  data
          base  entries  are  displayed.   The  current  entry is
          marked with '*', the default entry is marked  with  '+'
          and  the  entry  most  similar  to  the current disk is
          marked with '~'.  A matching  factor  is  displayed  in
          parenthesis.  Higher  values  are  indicating  a better
          match.

     Read in label data
          If the disk is already formatted, sformat reads in  the
          label and ask whether to remember this data.
          Sformat asks:
          Ignore old disk Label?
          I you confirm this question and reformat the disk,  the
          old partitioning information will be lost.

     Disk Parameters Menu
          If you want to modify some disk parameters  answer  the
          next question with 'y'.
          Sformat asks:
          Modify Disk Geometry Parameters?
          This enables to modify  basic  data  on  geometry,  the
          interleaving  factor  and the defect management system.
          If you want to do spindle synchronization, activate  it
          here.

     Error Recovery
          Error  recovery  parameters  include  read/write  retry
          count and similar.
          Sformat asks:

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          Modify Error recovery Parameters?

     Disconnect Parameter
          Disconnect parameters are buffer full/empty  ratio  and
          bus inactivity limit.
          Sformat asks:
          Modify Disconnect Parameters

     Alternate Label
          If you want to use an alternate label that  may  be  in
          the data base go into the next menu.
          Sformat asks:
          Select alternate Label?
          The current entry is marked with '*', the default entry
          is marked with '+'.

     Logical Label Geometry
          Sformat uses an abstract geometry in  the  label.  This
          allows  to  have  one  label  for a group of disks. The
          label geometry menu  allows  to  modify  this  abstract
          geometry.
          Sformat asks:
          Modify Label Geometry Parameters?

     SCSI Parameters
          This menu contains  questions  about  command  queuing,
          defect list format and similar.  Some disks do not sup-
          port the default  block  defect  list  format.  Specify
          another  format in this case here. If the disk does not
          support the SCSI write-verify command,  sformat  allows
          to  split this into a SCSI write and a SCSI verify com-
          mand.  The data cannot be compared in  this  case.   If
          the  disk type is generally flaky a data base entry can
          be set up to do write verify as default  after  format-
          ting.  If the disk will not handle 1000 blocks per ver-
          ify command because of a firmware bug, a smaller  value
          may be specified here.
          Sformat asks:
          Modify SCSI Parameters?

     Grown Defect List
          If a disk has not been formatted  before  or  has  been
          refurbished, you should clear the old grown defect list
          to get a clean start. If the disk has bad blocks, sfor-
          mat  will  find  them  after formatting while doing the
          surface analysis.  If the disk has  known  defects  you
          should  negotiate  the next question to keep the defect
          list.
          Sformat asks:
          Clear old grown defect list?

     Mode pages

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          If you want to format the disk, you  need  to  set  the
          mode pages before.
          Sformat asks:
          Set mode pages (needed for format)?
          However, if you do not want to format the disk, you may
          negotiate  this  question and will be lead to the label
          modification menu.

     Formatting the disk
          The next question is the last one  you  will  be  asked
          before  starting to format the disk.  If formatting has
          started, you will see  the  progress  of  this  process
          indicated  in  the  used up percentage of the estimated
          time.
          Sformat asks:
          Format Disk destroys all Data. Really?
          If you only want to set the mode pages,  you  may  this
          question with 'n'.

     Creating and modifying the disk label
          After the disk has been formatted or if the  formatting
          has been denied, the label menu is entered.
          Sformat asks:
          Print disk label?
          If you want to see  the  current  layout  of  the  disk
          label, enter 'y'.
          Sformat asks:
          Modify disk label?
          If you want to modify the disk label enter 'y'.

     Inside the label modification menu
          Sformat asks:
          Label: <Quantum XP34300> change ?
          If you want to retain the old label name,  enter  <CR>,
          else  enter  'y'.  Sformat  will  ask for the new Label
          name.
          Sformat asks:
          Enter disk label: Quantum XP34300
          You are left in the tty line edit mode and  may  modify
          the input line (see termio(7) manual page).
          Sformat asks:
          Volume Name: <> change ?
          If you want to retain the old label name,  enter  <CR>,
          else  enter  'y'.  Sformat  will ask for the new Volume
          name.
          Sformat asks:
          Change partition table?
          If you want to change the partition table enter 'y'.
          Sformat asks:
          Part      Tag  Flag   Cylinders  Startsec  #   of   Sec
          Size    Blocks
          0        root  wm      0  -    30          0      67580

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          32.99MB (31/0/0)
          Change ?
          If you want to modify this partition enter 'y',  other-
          wise  enter  <CR>  until sformat asks for the partition
          you want to change.
          Sformat asks:
          Enter partition id Tag [root]:
          Enter <CR> if the partition tag is ok for  this  parti-
          tion, otherwise enter '?' to get a list of valid parti-
          tion tags or enter the new partition tag.
          Sformat asks:
          Enter partition permission Flags [wm]:
          Enter <CR> if the partition flag is ok for this  parti-
          tion, otherwise enter '?' to get a list of valid parti-
          tion flags or enter the new partition flag.
          Sformat asks:
          Enter starting cylinder 0 (0 - 3851)/<cr>:
          Enter <CR> if the starting cylinder is ok for this par-
          tition,  otherwise  enter '?' to get a list of possible
          input.  XXX
          Sformat asks:
          Enter   number   of   blocks   67580,   31/0/0   (0   -
          8395180)/<cr>:
          Enter <CR> if the size is ok for this partition, other-
          wise enter '?' to get a list of possible input.  XXX
          Sformat asks:
          Part      Tag  Flag   Cylinders  Startsec  #   of   Sec
          Size    Blocks
          0        root  wm      0  -    30          0      67580
          32.99MB (31/0/0)
          Ok ?
          Enter <CR> if you still want to  modify  the  partition
          record.   You  then will be asked again for all parame-
          ters of this partition.  Enter 'y' if this partition is
          now ok.

          If all partitions  are  cycled  through,  sformat  will
          display the current label.
          Sformat asks:
          Use this label?
          If you enter 'y', sformat will update the label on disk
          and  go  into  the verify mode.  Anything else will put
          you into the label modification mode again.

     Disk Verification
          In disk verification mode, sformat will  do  a  surface
          analysis.   If a bad block is encountered, sformat will
          reassign this bad block.  XXX


How To Format A Disk


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     The number of defects that SCSI disks can handle depends  on
     the defect mapping system they use. There are several possi-
     ble systems:

     The mapping system depends on the # of tracks  per  zone  in
     the  SCSI disk parameters.  Mapping area in this table means
     spare location.

     1)   One mapping area at the end of the disk. (tpz == 0)

     2)   One mapping area per track.         (tpz == 1)

     3)   One mapping area per cylinder.           (tpz == nhead)

     4)   Some mapping areas on on the disk   (tpz > nhead)

     If all the space in the defect spare locations above is used
     up, there still may be an additional mapping area at the end
     of the disk.  This is controlled by the alternate tracks per
     volume parameter.

     If your disk says no defect spare location, you may be  able
     to  get extra space by going into the disk parameter menu of
     sformat and change a value. Note: some disks tell  you  that
     some  of  the  values  are  changeable  (there is a range in
     parenthesis) but actually ignore the  new  value.  You  will
     have  to  read the values after formatting to see if the new
     parameters are in effect.


How To Modify A Label

     Remember, don't panic. You need no desc calculator to create
     or modify a partition table.

     The alternate cylinders are historic  relics.  In  good  old
     days  (1982)  when SMD disks that were not able to do defect
     mapping have been used, these alternates were  added  to  do
     the  defect  mapping in the driver.  In these days the space
     occupied by these spare cylinders really has  been  used  as
     alternate (spare) space.

     Currently they are only used for some copies of the  primary
     disk  label  and an outdated copy of the defect list is only
     able to hold 127 defects :-(.

     The label geometry cannot be changed in the partition  menu.
     It must be set before from the Label Parameters menu.

     Print disk label?             If this question  is  answered
                                   with 'y', the label and parti-
                                   tioning    info    will     be

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                                   displayed.

     Modify disk label?            If this question  is  answered
                                   with  'y', the label modifica-
                                   tion menu will be entered.

     Label: <Toshiba 1015MB> change ?
                                   If this question  is  answered
                                   with  'y',  the  name  of  the
                                   label nay be modified.

     Volume Name: <5.3> change ?   If this question  is  answered
                                   with  'y', the system V volume
                                   name may be altered.

     Change partition table?       If this question  is  answered
                                   with  'y',  a  partition  menu
                                   will be displayed.

     Use this label?


Graphical Label Display

     When printing the label or partition data,  sformat  uses  a
     simple  ASCII  graphical  display to visualize the layout of
     the partitions.  The symbols used in  this  graphic  display
     are described below.

     Example:

     a I--/
     b    /-----------/
     c I----------------------------------------------------------------------I
     d partition not defined
     e             <--/
     f                /--------/
     g                                        <-------------------------------I
     h                         /----------------------------------------------I
     WARNING:
     part 'e' has unaligned start.
     part 'g' has unaligned start.

     Used symbols:

     I         Used to mark the start end the end of the disk (no
               error).

     X         Partition starts before zero  or  exceeds  end  of
               disk.

     /         Partition  has  an  adjacent  start  or  end  with
               another partition (no error).

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     +         Two or mode partitions have the start or  the  end
               at the same position on the disk but no other par-
               tition connects to this point.  This is  an  error
               that  indicates  that there may be unused space on
               the disk.

     <         This partition does not connect to another  parti-
               tion  on  its  beginning.   This  is an error that
               indicates that there may be unused  space  on  the
               disk.

     >         This partition does not connect to another  parti-
               tion  on its end.  This is an error that indicates
               that there may be unused space on the disk.

     *         Internal error in the check routines (should never
               happen).

     Errors:

     ends behind lncyl   Partition is bigger than possible.

     One or more parts are not within range of part 'c'!
                         Partition 'c' (2) should  be  the  whole
                         disk.   This  warning  indicates  a disk
                         that deviates from this rule.

     Warnings:

     unaligned start     The partition starts not in  conjunction
                         to another partition.

     unaligned end       The partition ends not in conjunction to
                         another partition.

     space before start  There is  no  partition  that  uses  the
                         space  between the beginning of the disk
                         and the beginning of this partition.

     space after end     There is  no  partition  that  uses  the
                         space  between the end of this partition
                         and the end of the disk.


Creating Disk Database Entries


EXAMPLES


FILES


SEE ALSO


DIAGNOSTICS


NOTES


BUGS


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Schily's USER COMMANDS                          SFORMAT draft(1L)

     This is a draft of the manual changes may be daily.


AUTHOR

     Joerg Schilling
     Seestr. 110
     D-13353 Berlin
     Germany

     Mail bugs and suggestions to:

     joerg@schily.isdn.cs.tu-berlin.de or js@cs.tu-berlin.de

Joerg Schilling       Last change: 07/06/29                    20


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