GMD FOKUS FILE FORMATS                              makefiles(4L)


NAME

     makefiles - users guide for compiling projects on  different
     platforms


SYNOPSIS

     make [target]
     gmake [target]
     smake [target]

     Target may be one of:

     .help     to get a list of  possible  targets  and  a  short
               description.

     all       to make the default targets

     install   to make  and  install  the  default  targets  (see
               INS_BASE  and INS_KBASE to learn how to modify the
               installation path).

     ibins     to make and install a target in SRCROOT/bins

     depend    to re-make dependency rules for all  default  tar-
               gets.   Note:  All dependency files will automati-
               cally remade on the next run of make  before  they
               are included.

     clean     to remove core files and all  intermediate  object
               files.

     clobber   to remove the targets from clean,  all  dependency
               files and all final targets

     distclean to remove the targets from clean and  clobber  and
               all made files for all architectures.

     tags      to make vi(1) compatible tags

     TAGS      to make emacs(1) compatible tags

     config    reserved for future use.

     rmtarget  to remove the default target

     relink    to remove the default target and remake it immedi-
               ately. This can be used to change .e.g LD_RUN_PATH
               in the executable.


DESCRIPTION

     Makefiles is a set of rules that allows compiling of  struc-
     tured   projects   with   small   and  uniformly  structured

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GMD FOKUS FILE FORMATS                              makefiles(4L)

     makefiles.  All rules are located in  a  central  directory.
     Compiling  the  projects  on different platforms can be done
     simultaneously  without  the  need  to  modify  any  of  the
     makefiles that are located in the projects directories.

     Makefiles is a set of high level portability tools  superior
     to autoconf and easier to use.

     Three make programs are supported:  Sunpro  make,  GNU  make
     and smake.

     BSDmake could be supported if it supports  pattern  matching
     rules correctly.

     The main design goal was to have a set of small and easy  to
     read makefiles, each located in the project's leaf directory
     and therefore called leaf-makefile.

     Each of these leaf-makefiles, in fact contains  no  rule  at
     all.  It simply defines some macros for the make-program and
     includes two files from a central make rule depository.  The
     included  files  and the files that are recursively included
     define the rules that are needed to compile the project.

     Each leaf-makefile is formed in a really simple way:

     o    It first defines two macros that  define  the  relative
          location  of  the project's root directory and the name
          of the directory that contains the complete set  of  of
          rules  and  then  includes the rule file rules.top from
          the directory that forms the central  rule  depository.
          You  only have to edit the macro SRCROOT to reflect the
          relative location of the project's root directory.

     o    The next part of a leaf-makefile  defines  macros  that
          describe  the target and the source.  You can only have
          one target per leaf-makefile.  Of course, there may  be
          many  source files, that are needed to create that tar-
          get.  If you want to make more than  one  target  in  a
          specific  directory,  you  have  to  put  more than one
          makefile into that directory.  This is the  part  of  a
          makefile  that  describes  a  unique target.  Edit this
          part to contain all source  files,  all  local  include
          files  and  all  non global compile time flags that are
          needed for your target.  For a typical target  this  is
          as simple as filling in a form.

     o    Each leaf-makefile finally includes  a  file  from  the
          rules directory that contains rules for the appropriate
          type of target that is  to  be  made  from  this  leaf-
          makefile.

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GMD FOKUS FILE FORMATS                              makefiles(4L)

     The makefile in each directory has to  be  called  Makefile.
     If  you  want  to  have more than one makefile in a specific
     directory, you have to choose different names for the  other
     makefiles.

     There are rules for the following type of targets:

     commands            The make rules for user  level  commands
                         like  cat,  ls  etc.  are located in the
                         file rules.cmd

     drivers             The make rules for  device  drivers  are
                         located in the file rules.drv

     libraries           The make rules for non shared  libraries
                         are located in the file rules.lib

     shared libraries    The make rules for shared libraries  are
                         located in the file rules.shl

     localized files     The make rules for localized  files  are
                         located in the file rules.loc

     nonlocalized files  The make rules for non  localized  files
                         are located in the file rules.aux

     shell scripts       The make  rules  for  shell  scripts  (a
                         variant  of localized files) are located
                         in the file rules.scr

     manual pages        The make rules for manual pages (a vari-
                         ant  of  localized files) are located in
                         the file rules.man

     diverted makefiles  The make rules for projects that need to
                         have   more   than  one  makefile  in  a
                         specific directory are  located  in  the
                         file  rules.mks  It contains a rule that
                         diverts to  the  listed  sub  makefiles.
                         Each sub makefile may be of any type.

     directories         The make rules for sub  directories  are
                         located in the file rules.dir


Macros/Variables Used In Rules

     The following is a description of the most important  macros
     used  within the make rules.  NOTE: not all of them might be
     changed in a specific makefile.  Carefully read the descrip-
     tion  and  change  only those macros that are intended to be
     used to change the behavior of the compilation.

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GMD FOKUS FILE FORMATS                              makefiles(4L)

     ARCHDIR      contains the location where  object  files  and
                  make  targets  will  be placed.  A typical name
                  would be:  OBJ/sparc-sunos5-cc
                  Do not change this macro.

     ASFLAGS      The flags that are used with the assembler.
                  Do not change this macro.

     ASMFILES     a list of assembler source files, to be  speci-
                  fied in a leaf makefile.

     ASOPTS       The internal macro that contains the flags  for
                  the  assembler.   Change this macro if you want
                  to change the behavior.  Use: ASOPTS= value  If
                  you  want to override the default value. If you
                  want to override the  default  assembler  flags
                  from    the    command    line    call:    make
                  'ASOPTS=value' Use: ASOPTS += value If you want
                  to add flags to the default value from within a
                  makefile.

     ASOPTX       may be used if you want to  add  flags  to  the
                  assembler  flags  from  the  command line. Use:
                  make 'ASOPTX=value'

     C_ARCH       this macro contains the c-compiler architecture
                  name.
                  Do not change this macro.

     CCOM         This macro may be used from the command line to
                  use  a  different  c-compiler than the default.
                  Use:  make 'CCOM=gcc' to use gcc for  the  next
                  run.   Note:  The value of CCOM must not neces-
                  sarily be identical to the real name of the  c-
                  compiler.   It  refers to a filename which con-
                  tains the definition for that c-compiler.  This
                  hint  applies  as well to all other macros that
                  deal with the name of the c-compiler.  The only
                  macro,  that  contains the real invocation name
                  of the c-compiler, is CC.  CC is set inside the
                  machine  dependent  configuration  file  in the
                  central  rules  depository  and  must  not   be
                  changed elsewhere.

     CFILES       a list of C source files, to be specified in  a
                  leaf makefile.

     CFLAGS       The flags that are used  with  the  c-compiler.
                  Do   not  use  flags  that  belong  to  the  c-
                  preprocessor in the COPTOPT,  COPTS  and  COPTX
                  macros.
                  Do not change this macro.

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GMD FOKUS FILE FORMATS                              makefiles(4L)

     CLEAN_FILES  A list of files ( besides the  object  files  )
                  that will be removed with make clean.
                  Do not change this macro.

     CLEAN_FILEX  this macro may be  used  to  define  additional
                  files that should be removed with make clean.

     CLOBBER_FILEX
                  this macro may be  used  to  define  additional
                  files that should be removed with make clobber.

     COPTOPT      The c-compiler optimization flag. This flag  is
                  intended   to   be  overridden  either  from  a
                  makefile or from command line.

     COPTS        The internal macro that contains the flags  for
                  the  c-compiler.  Change this macro if you want
                  to change the behavior.  Use: COPTS=  value  If
                  you  want to override the default value. If you
                  want to override the default  c-compiler  flags
                  from the command line call:  make 'COPTS=value'
                  Use: COPTS += value If you want to add flags to
                  the default value from within a makefile.

     COPTX        may be used if you want to add flags to the  c-
                  compiler  flags  from  the  command  line. Use:
                  make 'COPTX=value'

     CPPFLAGS     The  flags  that   are   used   with   the   c-
                  preprocessor.   This macro as well as:  CPPOPTS
                  and CPPOPTX are also  used  when  compiling  c-
                  programs.  They should contain only the follow-
                  ing flags:  -Dname=value , -Uname , -Idirectory
                  and -Ydirectory.
                  Do not change this macro.

     CPPOPTS      The internal macro that contains the flags  for
                  the  c-preprocessor.   Change this macro if you
                  want to change  the  behavior.   Use:  CPPOPTS=
                  value  If  you  want  to  override  the default
                  value. If you want to override the  default  c-
                  preprocessor  flags from the command line call:
                  make 'CPPOPTS=value' Use: CPPOPTS +=  value  If
                  you want to add flags to the default value from
                  within a makefile.

     CPPOPTX      may be used if you want to add flags to the  c-
                  preprocessor  flags from the command line. Use:
                  make 'CPPOPTX=value'

     CURDIR       This macro contains the name of the sub  direc-
                  tory that is currently processed.

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GMD FOKUS FILE FORMATS                              makefiles(4L)

                  Do not change this macro.

     CWARNOPTS    This     macro     may      be      set      in
                  $(DEFLTSROOT)/$(DEFLTSDIR)/Defaults          or
                  $(DEFLTSROOT)/$(DEFLTSDIR)/Defaults.$(O_ARCH)
                  to   overwrite   the  default  c-compiler  warn
                  options.

     CWOPTS       This macro is set inside the machine  dependent
                  configuration file in the central rules deposi-
                  tory and must not  be  changed  elsewhere.   It
                  contains the flags that set the default warning
                  level for the c-compiler.

     DEFINSGRP    this macro may be set in the projects  defaults
                  file to set up the default group id for instal-
                  lation

     DEFINSMODE   this macro may be set in the projects  defaults
                  file  to set up the default file permission for
                  installation

     DEFINSUSR    this macro may be set in the projects  defaults
                  file  to set up the default user id for instal-
                  lation

     DEFUMASK     this macro may be set in the projects  defaults
                  file  to  set  up  the  default umask value for
                  creating sub directories

     DEFAULTSDIR  this macro may be set from command line or from
                  the  shell environment if the user wants to use
                  a different set of Defaults files that  is  not
                  located in the directory DEFAULTS in the source
                  root directory.  This may be used to  hold  two
                  or more set of defaults that differ e.g. in the
                  installation path or the C-compiler.

     DEFAULTSROOT this macro may be set in a  leaf  makefile,  if
                  that makefile wants to use a Defaults file that
                  is not located in $(DEFAULTSDIR) in the  source
                  root.  This may be used, if a sub tree in a big
                  project needs a different setup.

     DEFLTSDIR    This is an internally used macro  that  is  set
                  from   $(DEFAULTSDIR)   or  from  the  internal
                  defaults.
                  Do not change this macro.

     DEFLTSROOT   This is an internally used macro  that  is  set
                  from   $(DEFAULTSROOT)  or  from  the  internal
                  defaults.

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GMD FOKUS FILE FORMATS                              makefiles(4L)

                  Do not change this macro.

     DEFCCOM      the default name of  the  c-compiler.  This  is
                  usually       set       in       the       file
                  $(DEFLTSROOT)/$(DEFLTSDIR)/Defaults          or
                  $(DEFLTSROOT)/$(DEFLTSDIR)/Defaults.$(O_ARCH).

     DEFINCDIRS   a list of  directories  that  are  searched  by
                  default  in  addition  to  the  system  include
                  directories.  If  this  macro   is   not   set,
                  $(SRCROOT)/include is used.

     DIRNAME      this macro needs to be set in the makefile that
                  is  located  in  the $(SRCROOT) directory.  The
                  value should be either set to the name  of  the
                  directory  where  the makefile is located or to
                  SRCROOT.  The value of this  macro  is  updated
                  automatically  to  follow the directory hierar-
                  chy.  Do not change this macro in a  make  file
                  other than the make file in the source root.

     DIRS         this macro needs to be set in a  makefile  that
                  is  located in a directory that contains diver-
                  sion directories.  It must contain  a  list  of
                  directory names where the diversions go to e.g.
                  DIRS= libfoo libbar libgarbage.

     HFILES       for normal operation, makefiles will  automati-
                  cally  find  which include files are needed for
                  compilation.  However, if you want to create  a
                  tag  file  that  includes  tags for definitions
                  that occur within include files, you should set
                  HFILES to be a list of include files containing
                  such definitions.

     INCDIRS      this macro will normally be a copy from DEFINC-
                  DIRS.   You  may  however  specify  a different
                  value in a leaf makefile or from command  line.
                  This will overwrite the defaults value.

     INS_BASE     this macro has to  be  specified  in  the  file
                  $(DEFLTSROOT)/$(DEFLTSDIR)/Defaults          or
                  $(DEFLTSROOT)/$(DEFLTSDIR)/Defaults.$(O_ARCH).
                  It  must  contain the path name of the root for
                  installing general targets of the project.  See
                  INSDIR.

     INS_KBASE    this macro has to  be  specified  in  the  file
                  $(DEFLTSROOT)/$(DEFLTSDIR)/Defaults          or
                  $(DEFLTSROOT)/$(DEFLTSDIR)/Defaults.$(O_ARCH).
                  It  must  contain the path name of the root for
                  installing kernel  modules  from  the  project.

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GMD FOKUS FILE FORMATS                              makefiles(4L)

                  See INSDIR.

     INSDIR       this macro has to  be  specified  in  the  leaf
                  makefile.   It  must contain the path name of a
                  directory relative to  INS_BASE  or  INS_KBASE.
                  The    target    will    be    installed   into
                  $(INS_BASE)/$(INSDIR) .

     INSGRP       this macro may be set in a leaf makefile to set
                  up the group id for installation

     INSMODE      this macro may be set in a leaf makefile to set
                  up the file permission for installation

     INSUSR       this macro may be set in a leaf makefile to set
                  up the user id for installation

     K_ARCH       this macro contains the  kernel/machine  archi-
                  tecture  for  the  target  machine  (e.g.  sun3
                  sun4c sun4m sun4u 9000-725 aviion).  It is  set
                  to  the  output  of uname -m converted to lower
                  case.
                  Do not change this macro.

     KARCH        this macro contains the  kernel/machine  archi-
                  tecture  for  the  target  machine  (e.g.  sun3
                  sun4c sun4m sun4u 9000-725 aviion).  It is  set
                  to  the  output  of uname -m converted to lower
                  case.
                  Do not change this macro unless you want to  do
                  a cross compilation.

     LDFLAGS      The flags that are used with the linker.
                  Do not change this macro.

     LDLIBS       The internal macro  that  holds  the  libraries
                  that are used while linking the target.
                  Do not change this macro.

     LDOPTS       The internal macro that contains the flags  for
                  the  linker.   Change this macro if you want to
                  change the behavior.  Use: LDOPTS= value If you
                  want to override the default value. If you want
                  to override the default linker flags  from  the
                  command  line  call:   make 'LDOPTS=value' Use:
                  LDOPTS += value If you want to add flags to the
                  default value from within a makefile.

     LDOPTX       may be used if you want to  add  flags  to  the
                  linker  flags from the command line. Use:  make
                  'LDOPTX=value'

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GMD FOKUS FILE FORMATS                              makefiles(4L)

     LDPATH       the default library search path for the linker.
                  This    is    usually    set    in   the   file
                  $(DEFLTSROOT)/$(DEFLTSDIR)/Defaults          or
                  $(DEFLTSROOT)/$(DEFLTSDIR)/Defaults.$(O_ARCH).

     LIB_KVM      a predefined macro that contains the  operating
                  system  dependent  name  of  a  library that is
                  needed by programs that read/write kernel  vir-
                  tual  memory.   Add  $(LIB_KVM) to your list of
                  libraries (e.g.  LIBS= -lintl  $(LIB_KVM)),  if
                  your target uses kvm.

     LIB_MATH     a predefined macro that contains the  operating
                  system  dependent  name  of  a  library that is
                  needed by programs that  use  routines  of  the
                  math  library.  Add $(LIB_MATH) to your list of
                  libraries (e.g.  LIBS= -lintl $(LIB_MATH)),  if
                  your target uses math subroutines.

     LIB_SOCKET   a predefined macro that contains the  operating
                  system  dependent  name  of  a  library that is
                  needed by programs that use socket calls.   Add
                  $(LIB_SOCKET)  to  your list of libraries (e.g.
                  LIBS= -lintl  $(LIB_SOCKET)),  if  your  target
                  uses  sockets. Note: this should (for portabil-
                  ity reasons) even be done on systems that don't
                  require  a socket library because they have the
                  socket interface inside libc.

     LIBS_PATH    this macro contains the  path  to  a  directory
                  where  those  libraries  are located, that have
                  been build during a make run inside the current
                  project.
                  Do not change this macro.

     M_ARCH       this macro contains  the  machine  architecture
                  for  the  target  machine (e.g.  sun3 sun4 ip22
                  i86pc i586 9000-725 aviion).  It is set to  the
                  output  of  arch  converted  to lower case.  On
                  systems, where M_ARCH is not available,  it  is
                  set to the content of K_ARCH.
                  Do not change this macro.

     MK_FILES     makefiles that divert into sub makes within the
                  same  directory  must set MK_FILES to be a list
                  of makefile names for the sub makes.   Makefile
                  names  for sub makes should have a name that is
                  build by adding .mk to the  base  name  of  the
                  target  that  is  defined  inside  the specific
                  makefile.

     MAKEPROG     Set this macro to the name of your make program

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GMD FOKUS FILE FORMATS                              makefiles(4L)

                  if  it  does  not  support the macro MAKE_NAME.
                  The make program  smake  is  able  to  identify
                  itself.  If you want to use a make program that
                  is not able to identify itself and it's name is
                  not  make, set MAKEPROG to the name of the make
                  program.  Currently only gmake is supported  as
                  alternate  value  for MAKEPROG.  If you want to
                  use an unsupported make  program  you  have  to
                  check  if  it  supports the needed features for
                  makefiles.  You must write your own rule  files
                  for  that  make  program.   If  you want to use
                  gmake, you  should  do  setenv  MAKEPROG  gmake
                  before  you  start  gmake or use a shell script
                  that does this job for you.

     MAKE         This macro is set up by the make  program.   It
                  contains  a  path  name  that  is sufficient to
                  recursively call the same  make  program  again
                  (either  that  last  path component or the full
                  path name of the make program).
                  Do not change this macro.

     MAKEFLAGS    This macro is set up by the make  program.   It
                  contains the command line flags, make is called
                  with.
                  Do not change this macro.

     MAKE_ARCH    This macro is currently set up by  smake  only.
                  It  contains  the processor architecture of the
                  target machine (e.g. mc68020, sparc, pentium).
                  Do not change this macro.

     MAKE_BRAND   This macro is currently set up by  smake  only.
                  It  contains  the  brand  of the target machine
                  (e.g. Sun_Microsystems(e.g. ).
                  Do not change this macro.

     MAKE_HOST    This macro is currently set up by  smake  only.
                  It contains the host name of the target machine
                  (e.g. duffy, sherwood, ghost).
                  Do not change this macro.

     MAKE_MACH    This macro is currently set up by  smake  only.
                  It contains the kernel architecture of the tar-
                  get machine (e.g. sun3, sun4c, sun4m, sun4u).
                  Do not change this macro.

     MAKE_MODEL   This macro is currently set up by  smake  only.
                  It  contains  the  model  name  of  the  target
                  machine (e.g. SUNW,SPARCstation-20).
                  Do not change this macro.

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GMD FOKUS FILE FORMATS                              makefiles(4L)

     MAKE_M_ARCH  This macro is currently set up by  smake  only.
                  It  contains  the  machine  architecture of the
                  target machine (e.g. sun3, sun4).
                  Do not change this macro.

     MAKE_NAME    This macro is currently set up by  smake  only.
                  It  contains the official name of the make pro-
                  gram (e.g. make, smake, gmake).
                  Do not change this macro.

     MAKE_OS      This macro is currently set up by  smake  only.
                  It  contains  the  operating system name of the
                  target machine (e.g. sunos, linux, dgux).
                  Do not change this macro.

     MAKE_OSDEFS  This macro is currently set up by  smake  only.
                  It  contains  operating system specific defines
                  for the compiler (e.g. -D__SVR4).
                  Do not change this macro.

     MAKE_OSREL   This macro is currently set up by  smake  only.
                  It  contains  the operating system release name
                  of the target machine (e.g. 5.5, 4.1.1).
                  Do not change this macro.

     MAKE_OSVERSION
                  This macro is currently set up by  smake  only.
                  It contains the operating system version of the
                  target machine (e.g. generic).
                  Do not change this macro.

     MAKE_SERIAL  This macro is currently set up by  smake  only.
                  It  contains  the  serial  number of the target
                  machine (e.g. 1920098175).
                  Do not change this macro.

     MANDIR       all makefiles for manual pages  must  set  this
                  macro  to  the  path  name relative to INS_BASE
                  where the manual page root dir for the  project
                  should  be.  Possible values for english manual
                  pages are man or share/man, possible values for
                  german manual pages are man/de or share/man/de.

     MANFILE      makefiles for manual pages set  this  macro  to
                  the  name  of  the  troff  source  file for the
                  manual page

     MANSECT      makefiles for manual pages set  this  macro  to
                  the  macro  name that contains the real section
                  name for this manual page.  This  is  necessary
                  because  bsd based system have different naming
                  conventions than system V  based  systems.  See

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GMD FOKUS FILE FORMATS                              makefiles(4L)

                  below  for  a valid list of manual section mac-
                  ros.

     MANSECT_ADMIN
                  This macro contains the name of the sub  direc-
                  tory  for  administrative  commands and mainte-
                  nance procedures.
                  Do not change this macro.

     MANSECT_CMD  This macro contains the name of the sub  direc-
                  tory for general user commands.
                  Do not change this macro.

     MANSECT_DEMOS
                  This macro contains the name of the sub  direc-
                  tory for demo commands.
                  Do not change this macro.

     MANSECT_DEVICE
                  This macro contains the name of the sub  direc-
                  tory for user level device interfaces.
                  Do not change this macro.

     MANSECT_DRIVER
                  This macro contains the name of the sub  direc-
                  tory for kernel level device driver interfaces.
                  Do not change this macro.

     MANSECT_FILEFORM
                  This macro contains the name of the sub  direc-
                  tory for file formats.
                  Do not change this macro.

     MANSECT_GAMES
                  This macro contains the name of the sub  direc-
                  tory for games.
                  Do not change this macro.

     MANSECT_HDR  This macro contains the name of the sub  direc-
                  tory for header files.
                  Do not change this macro.

     MANSECT_LIB  This macro contains the name of the sub  direc-
                  tory for library function interfaces.
                  Do not change this macro.

     MANSECT_MACROS
                  This macro contains the name of the sub  direc-
                  tory for troff macros.
                  Do not change this macro.

     MANSECT_NETWORK

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GMD FOKUS FILE FORMATS                              makefiles(4L)

                  This macro contains the name of the sub  direc-
                  tory for user level network interfaces.
                  Do not change this macro.

     MANSECT_SYSCALL
                  This macro contains the name of the sub  direc-
                  tory for system call interfaces.  Do not change
                  this macro.

     MANSECT_TABLES
                  This macro contains the name of the sub  direc-
                  tory for tables.  Do not change this macro.

     MANSTYLE     This macro contains the name that  is  used  to
                  find  the right ordering conventions for manual
                  pages.  Do not change this macro.

     MANSUFFIX    makefiles for manual pages set  this  macro  to
                  the  macro  name  that contains the real suffix
                  for this manual page. This is necessary because
                  bsd  based system have different naming conven-
                  tions than system V based  systems.  See  below
                  for a valid list of manual suffix macros.

     MANSUFF_ADMIN
                  This macro contains the name of the file suffix
                  for  administrative  commands  and  maintenance
                  procedures.
                  Do not change this macro.

     MANSUFF_CMD  This macro contains the name of the file suffix
                  for general user commands.
                  Do not change this macro.

     MANSUFF_DEMOS
                  This macro contains the name of the file suffix
                  for demo commands.
                  Do not change this macro.

     MANSUFF_DEVICE
                  This macro contains the name of the file suffix
                  for user level device interfaces.
                  Do not change this macro.

     MANSUFF_DRIVER
                  This macro contains the name of the file suffix
                  for kernel level device driver interfaces.
                  Do not change this macro.

     MANSUFF_FILEFORM
                  This macro contains the name of the file suffix
                  for file formats.

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GMD FOKUS FILE FORMATS                              makefiles(4L)

                  Do not change this macro.

     MANSUFF_GAMES
                  This macro contains the name of the file suffix
                  for games.
                  Do not change this macro.

     MANSUFF_HDR  This macro contains the name of the file suffix
                  for header files.
                  Do not change this macro.

     MANSUFF_LIB  This macro contains the name of the file suffix
                  for library function interfaces.
                  Do not change this macro.

     MANSUFF_MACROS
                  This macro contains the name of the file suffix
                  for troff macros.
                  Do not change this macro.

     MANSUFF_NETWORK
                  This macro contains the name of the file suffix
                  for user level network interfaces.
                  Do not change this macro.

     MANSUFF_SYSCALL
                  This macro contains the name of the file suffix
                  for system call interfaces.  Do not change this
                  macro.

     MANSUFF_TABLES
                  This macro contains the name of the file suffix
                  for tables.  Do not change this macro.

     MARCH        this macro contains  the  machine  architecture
                  for  the  target  machine (e.g.  sun3 sun4 ip22
                  i86pc i586 9000-725 aviion).  It is set to  the
                  output  of  arch  converted  to lower case.  On
                  systems, where M_ARCH is not available,  it  is
                  set to the content of K_ARCH.
                  Do not change this macro unless you want to  do
                  a cross compilation.

     O_ARCH       this macro contains the name of  the  operating
                  system  converted to lower case.  It is usually
                  the output of:  uname -s.   It  may  contain  a
                  modified name if the compilation rules for dif-
                  ferent version of the operating  system  differ
                  (e.g.   on  SunOS  and  Solaris,  the  official
                  operation system name in both cases is SunOS).
                  Do not change this macro.

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GMD FOKUS FILE FORMATS                              makefiles(4L)

     OARCH        this macro  contains  the  object  architecture
                  that  is  used  for  architecture dependent sub
                  directories.       It      is      set      to:
                  $(PARCH)-$(O_ARCH)-$(C_ARCH).
                  Do not change this macro.

     OARCHDIR     this macro contains the concatenation  of  OBJ/
                  and $(OARCH).
                  Do not change this macro.

     OFILES       this macro contains the list  of  objects  that
                  are the the dependency list for the target.  It
                  is  constructed  from  the  list  of  assembler
                  source  files, c source files, lex source files
                  and yacc source files.
                  Do not change this macro.

     OINCSDIR     this  macro  contains  the   concatenation   of
                  $(SRCROOT)/incs/ and $(OARCH).  It is the loca-
                  tion where include files that are made within a
                  make  run  and  subject  to  global use will be
                  placed.
                  Do not change this macro.

     OLIBSDIR     this  macro  contains  the   concatenation   of
                  $(SRCROOT)/libs/ and $(OARCH).  It is the loca-
                  tion where libraries that  are  made  within  a
                  make run will be placed.
                  Do not change this macro.

     OSDEFS       this macro contains operating  system  specific
                  c-preprocessor definitions.
                  Do not change this macro.

     OSNAME       the unmodified name  of  the  operating  system
                  converted to lower case.  See O_ARCH.
                  Do not change this macro.

     OSREL        the release of the operating system.
                  Do not change this macro.

     P_ARCH       this macro contains the processor  architecture
                  for  the  target machine (e.g.  mc68020 mc88200
                  sparc pentium).  It is set  to  the  output  of
                  uname  -p converted to lower case.  On systems,
                  where P_ARCH is not available, it is set to the
                  content of K_ARCH.
                  Do not change this macro.

     PARCH        this macro contains the processor  architecture
                  for  the  target machine (e.g.  mc68020 mc88200
                  sparc pentium).  It is set  to  the  output  of

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GMD FOKUS FILE FORMATS                              makefiles(4L)

                  uname  -p converted to lower case.  On systems,
                  where P_ARCH is not available, it is set to the
                  content of K_ARCH.
                  Do not change this macro unless you want to  do
                  a cross compilation.

     RULESDIR     the value of this macro must be set before  the
                  rules  file  $(SRCROOT)/$(RULESDIR/rules.top is
                  included.  If you want to test the behavior  of
                  a  modified  version of the makefiles in RULES-
                  DIR, put a copy into  an  alternate  directory,
                  modify  one  or  more  files in it and then use
                  make with a different value of  RULESDIR,  that
                  points to the alternate directory.

     RUNPATH      is evaluated on systems, where  LD_RUN_PATH  is
                  supported.   It  contains  the  default library
                  search path for dynamic linked targets on  run-
                  time.  This  search  path will be stored inside
                  the target.  This is usually set  in  the  file
                  $(DEFLTSROOT)/$(DEFLTSDIR)/Defaults          or
                  $(DEFLTSROOT)/$(DEFLTSDIR)/Defaults.$(O_ARCH).
                  Note    that    older    systems    will    use
                  LD_LIBRARY_PATH for this purpose too.

     SCRFILE      this macro must be set in a leaf  makefile  for
                  shell  scripts  to  define  the source for that
                  script file.

     SRCFILE      this macro must be set in a leaf  makefile  for
                  localized  files  to define the source for that
                  file.

     SRCROOT      this macro contains the  relative  position  to
                  the project's source root directory.  The value
                  of this macro must be set before the rules file
                  $(SRCROOT)/$(RULESDIR/rules.top   is  included.
                  SRCROOT should be set to ../.. if the appropri-
                  ate leaf makefile is located two directory lev-
                  els below the source route.

     SUBARCHDIR   may be set to put the object files and the tar-
                  get  into  a  different  directory  than usual.
                  SUBARCHDIR will modify the  value  of  ARCHDIR.
                  If  you  want to make a target that is compiled
                  for   dbx   you   may   use:    make   COPTX=-g
                  SUBARCHDIR=-dbx.

     TARGET       all  makefiles,  that  are  not  referring   to
                  library  targets  or sub makes / sub dir makes,
                  must define TARGET to be the output  file  name
                  of the final link operation.

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GMD FOKUS FILE FORMATS                              makefiles(4L)

     TARGETLIB    all makefiles that are used to  make  libraries
                  must define TARGETLIB to be the central part of
                  the target library.  If you want to  make  e.g.
                  libfoo  define  TARGETLIB= foo.  This is needed
                  to allow operating systems  to  have  different
                  naming  conventions  for libraries.  If you are
                  making a non shared library, the example  above
                  would  result  in a filename:  libfoo.a for the
                  real target.

     TARGETMAN    this macro must be set in a leaf  makefile  for
                  manual  pages  to define the base name for that
                  manual page (not including the suffix).

     XMK_FILE     makefiles that want  to  install  manual  pages
                  should  set  XMK_FILE  to Makefile.man to avoid
                  having to install a diversion  make  file.  The
                  make  file  found in XMK_FILE will be processed
                  only if make is called with the target install.


GETTING STARTED

     To set up a new project, first copy the RULES and  TEMPLATES
     directories  and  all  its  content  into the project's root
     directory.

     Then copy a top  level  makefile,  a  Defaults  file  and  a
     Targetdirs.archname file into the project's root directory.

     Then create the following directories:  cmd, lib, include.

     Now start creating target directories e.g below cmd and lib.
     Don't  forget  to  create  a  makefile  and  an  appropriate
     Targetdirs.archname file on each node directory.


EXAMPLES

     If you want to set up a private copy of parts of a  project,
     you  should  choose  a  directory inside your directory tree
     that will become the shadow projects source root  directory.
     Then  create symbolic links named RULES and TEMPLATES to the
     real source root.  If you don't want to  modify  the  global
     include  files, create a symbolic link to the include direc-
     tory too, else copy the include directory and  its  content.
     copy  the  top  level  makefile,  the  Defaults file and the
     Targetdirs.archname file.

     Finally  copy  the  desired  sub  tree  together  with   all
     makefiles and the Targetdirs.archname files that are located
     in the directories above your part of the project  that  you
     want to have separately.

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GMD FOKUS FILE FORMATS                              makefiles(4L)


FILES

     .../RULES/*
     .../DEFAULTS/*
     .../TARGETS/*
     .../TEMPLATES/*


SEE ALSO

     makerules(4), make(1), gmake(1), smake(1).

     If you want to know, how to add new rules or how to add sup-
     port  for  new operating systems or compilers look into mak-
     erules(4).


DIAGNOSTICS

     Diagnostic messages depend on the make program.  Have a look
     at the appropriate man page.


NOTES

     The  scope  of  this  manual  is  only  the  usage  of  leaf
     makefiles.   If  you  want to make changes to the make rules
     have a look at makerules(4).

     makefiles can be used with Sunpro make, Gnu make and  smake.
     Although  Gnu  make runs on many platforms, it has no useful
     debug output.

     Use Sunpro make  or  smake  if  you  have  problems  with  a
     makefile.   Sunpro make and smake, both have a -D flag, that
     allows you to watch the makefiles after the first expansion.
     Use  this  option, if you are in doubt if your makefile gets
     expanded the right way and if the right rules are  included.
     There  is also a -d option that gives debugging output while
     make is running. If you want more output, use -dd, -ddd  and
     so on.

     Smake has an option -xM that shows you  the  include  depen-
     dency for make rules.

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GMD FOKUS FILE FORMATS                              makefiles(4L)

     The following is a list of  all  macros  that  are  used  in
     makefiles.   Do  not  use them unless their meaning has been
     explained before.

     -O_ARCH,  .OBJDIR,  .SEARCHLIST,   ALLTARGETS,   AR,   ARCH,
     ARCHDIR,   ARCHDIRX,   ARCH_DONE,   ARFLAGS,   AS,  ASFLAGS,
     ASMFILES,  ASOPTS,  ASOPTX,  CC,  CCOM,  CCOM_DEF,   CFILES,
     CFLAGS,   CHGRP,  CHMOD,  CHOWN,  CLEAN_FILES,  CLEAN_FILEX,
     CLOBBER_FILEX, COPTDYN, COPTGPROF,  COPTOPT,  COPTS,  COPTX,
     CPP,  CPPFLAGS,  CPPOPTS, CPPOPTX, CTAGS, CURDIR, CWARNOPTS,
     CWOPTS,   C_ARCH,   DEFAULTSDIR,   DEFAULTSROOT,    DEFCCOM,
     DEFCCOM_DEF,    DEFINCDIRS,    DEFINCDIRS_DEF,    DEFINSGRP,
     DEFINSMODE,   DEFINSUSR,   DEFUMASK,   DEF_ROOT,    DEP_DEP,
     DEP_FILE,   DEP_SUFFIX,   DIRNAME,   DIRS,   DYNLD,   ETAGS,
     FLOAT_OPTIONS, HFILES, HOSTNAME,  INCDIRS,  INSDIR,  INSGRP,
     INSGRP_DEF,    INSMODE,    INSMODE_DEF,   INSTALL,   INSUSR,
     INSUSR_DEF, INS_BASE, INS_KBASE, KARCH, KARCH_DEF, KDEFINES,
     K_ARCH, LD, LDCC, LDFLAGS, LDLIBS, LDOPTDYN, LDOPTS, LDOPTX,
     LDPATH,   LIBS,   LIBS_PATH,   LIBX,   LIB_KVM,    LIB_MATH,
     LIB_PREFIX,  LIB_SOCKET, LIB_SUFFIX, LN, LNDYNLIB, LOCALIZE,
     LORDER,  MAKE,  MK_FILES,  MAKEPROG,  MAKE_ARCH,  MAKE_HOST,
     MAKE_MACH,  MAKE_M_ARCH,  MAKE_NAME,  MAKE_OS,  MAKE_OSDEFS,
     MAKE_OSREL,   MANDIR,   MANFILE,   MANSECT,   MANSECT_ADMIN,
     MANSECT_CMD,  MANSECT_DEMOS, MANSECT_DEVICE, MANSECT_DRIVER,
     MANSECT_FILEFORM, MANSECT_GAMES,  MANSECT_HDR,  MANSECT_LIB,
     MANSECT_MACROS,       MANSECT_NETWORK,      MANSECT_SYSCALL,
     MANSECT_TABLES,    MANSTYLE,    MANSUFFIX,    MANSUFF_ADMIN,
     MANSUFF_CMD,  MANSUFF_DEMOS, MANSUFF_DEVICE, MANSUFF_DRIVER,
     MANSUFF_FILEFORM, MANSUFF_GAMES,  MANSUFF_HDR,  MANSUFF_LIB,
     MANSUFF_MACROS,       MANSUFF_NETWORK,      MANSUFF_SYSCALL,
     MANSUFF_TABLES, MARCH, MARCH_DEF, MKDEP,  MKDEP_OUT,  MKDIR,
     MV,  M_ARCH,  OARCH,  OARCHDIR,  OFILES, OINCSDIR, OLIBSDIR,
     OSDEFS,  OSNAME,   OSREL,   O_ARCH,   PALLDEP_FILE,   PARCH,
     PARCH_DEF, PASMFILES, PDEP_FILE, PLOFILES, POFILES, PTARGET,
     PTARGET_BASE, PYOFILES, P_ARCH, RANLIB, RM, RMDEP, RMTARGET,
     RM_FORCE,  RM_RECURS,  RM_RF,  RULESDIR,  RUNPATH,  SCRFILE,
     SHELL,  SHL_SUFFIX,  SRCFILE,  SRCLIBS,  SRCROOT,   SUBARCH,
     SUBARCHDIR,  SYMLINK,  TAGS,  TARGET,  TARGETLIB, TARGETMAN,
     TARGET_BASE,   TARGET_PATH,   TSORT,    UMASK,    UMASK_DEF,
     UMASK_VAL,  XARCH,  XK_ARCH,  XMK_FILE,  XMAKEPROG, XM_ARCH,
     XP_ARCH,   _CCOM,   _DEFAULTSDIR,   _DEFCCOM,    _DEFINSGRP,
     _DEFINSMODE,   _DEFINSUSR,  _DEFUMASK,  _DIRNAME,  _INCDIRS,
     _MAKEPROG, _MARCH, _M_ARCH, _O_ARCH, _PARCH, _P_ARCH, _UNIQ,
     __CCOM, __DEFAULTSDIR, __DEFCCOM, __DEFINSGRP, __DEFINSMODE,
     __DEFINSUSR, __DEFUMASK, __DIRNAME,  __INCDIRS,  __MAKEPROG,
     __MARCH, __M_ARCH, __PARCH, __P_ARCH,


BUGS


Source Tree Hierarchy

     The following outline gives a quick tour through  a  typical
     source hierarchy:

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GMD FOKUS FILE FORMATS                              makefiles(4L)

     .../ root directory of the source tree
          Makefile
               the top Makefile
          Targetdirs
               a file containing a list of directories that are
               needed for that project.  If the system needs
               different target lists depending on the target
               system architecture , use target specific files in
               .../TARGETS/
          ...
     .../RULES/
          the location of makefiles (included rules)
          rules.top
               the mandatory include rules (needed to setup basic
               rules)
          rules.aux
               rules needed to install a non localized auxiliary
               file
          rules.cmd
               rules needed to make an ordinary command (like
               /bin/sh)
          rules.drv
               rules needed to make a device driver
          rules.lib
               rules needed to make a standard (nonshared)
               library
          rules.loc
               rules needed to install a localized auxiliary file
          rules.man
               rules needed to install a localized manual page
          rules.scr
               rules needed to install a localized shell script
          rules.shl
               rules needed to make a shared library
          rules.mks
               rules needed to make more than one target in a
               specific directory
          rules.dir
               rules needed to make targets that are located in
               sub directories to the current directory
          ...
     .../DEFAULTS/
          default definitions for various target architectures
          are located in this directory. Templates for some
          architectures can be found in the .../TEMPLATES/
          directory.
          Defaults
               default definitions for that source tree. System
               dependent definitions are in
               .../DEFAULTS/Defaults.*
     .../TARGETS/
          target list definitions for various target

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GMD FOKUS FILE FORMATS                              makefiles(4L)

          architectures are located in this directory.
     .../TEMPLATES/
          templates that should be used inside the project
          (rename to Makefile, if it is the only makefile in that
          directory, rename to target.mk, if there is more than
          one target in that directory)
          Defaults
               Defaults file for the source root directory
          Defaults.linux
               Defaults file for linux.  This should be installed
               in the .../DEFAULTS/ directory.
          Makefile.root
               Makefile for the source root directory
          Makefile.aux
               Makefile for a non localized auxiliary file
          Makefile.cmd
               Makefile for an ordinary command (like /bin/sh)
          Makefile.lib
               Makefile for a standard (nonshared) library
          Makefile.loc
               Makefile for a localized auxiliary file
          Makefile.man
               Makefile for a localized manual page
          Makefile_de.man
               Makefile for a localized manual page in the german
               locale
          Makefile.scr
               Makefile for a localized shell script
          Makefile.shl
               Makefile for a shared library
          Makefile.drv
               Makefile for a device driver
          Makefile.mks
               Makefile for more than one target in a specific
               directory
          Makefile.dir
               Makefile for targets that are located in sub
               directories to the current directory
          ...
     .../cmd/
          source tree for normal commands
          Makefile
               the makefile for the cmd sub directory
          Targetdirs.sun4m
               a file containing a list of directories like
               myprog (see below) that are needed for that
               specific architecture.
          myprog/
               directory where the sources for a specific command
               are located
               Makefile
                    makefile for myprog

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GMD FOKUS FILE FORMATS                              makefiles(4L)

               Makefile.man
                    makefile for the manual page of myprog
               mprog.c
                    source for myprog
               mprog.tr
                    troff source for the manual page of myprog
               OBJ/ directory where system specific sub
                    directories are located
                    sparc-sunos5-cc/
                         directory for binaries that belong to a
                         specific system
                    ...
               ...
          ...
     .../lib/
          directory where the sources for a libraries are located
          Makefile
               the makefile for the lib sub directory
          Targetdirs.sun4m
               a file containing a list of directories like
               libfoo (see below) that are needed for that
               specific architecture.
          libfoo/
               directory where all source files for libfoo are
               located
          ...
     .../kernel
          directory for kernel modules
          Makefile
               the makefile for the kernel sub directory
          Targetdirs.sun4m
               a file containing a list of directories like drv
               (see below) that are needed for that specific
               architecture.
          drv/ directory where drivers are located
               Makefile
                    the makefile for the drv sub directory
               Targetdirs.sun4m
                    a file containing a list of directories like
                    mydrv (see below) that are needed for that
                    specific architecture.
               mydrv/
                    source for a specific driver
               ...
          ...
     .../include
          directory for global include files that are used in
          that project
     .../bins
          directory for binary programs that are created/needed
          while compiling the project
          sparc-sunos5-cc/

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GMD FOKUS FILE FORMATS                              makefiles(4L)

               directory for binaries that belong to a specific
               system
          ...
     .../libs
          directory for libraries that are created/needed while
          compiling the project
          sparc-sunos5-cc/
               directory for libraries that belong to a specific
               system
          ...
     .../incs
          directory for include files that are created/needed
          while compiling the project
          sparc-sunos5-cc/
               directory for include files that belong to a
               specific system
          ...
     ...


AUTHOR

     Joerg Schilling
     Seestr. 110
     D-13353 Berlin
     Germany

     Mail bugs and suggestions to:

     joerg@schily.isdn.cs.tu-berlin.de or  js@cs.tu-berlin.de  or
     jes@fokus.gmd.de

Joerg Schilling  Last change: 14. February 1997                23


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