Maintenance Procedures                                 MKISOFS(8)


NAME

     mkisofs   -   create   an   hybrid   ISO-9660/JOLIET/HFS/UDF
     filesystem-image with optional Rock Ridge attributes.


SYNOPSIS

     mkisofs [ options ] [ -o filename ] pathspec [pathspec ...]
     mkisofs [ options ] [ -o filename ] -find [find expression]


DESCRIPTION

     mkisofs is effectively a pre-mastering program  to  generate
     an ISO-9660/JOLIET/HFS/UDF hybrid filesystem.

     ISO-9660/JOLIET/UDF filesystems are  limited  to  a  maximum
     size  of  8 TB.   The  maximum size of a single file is 8 TB
     (single  files  in  UDF  are  currently  limited  to  aprox.
     200 GB).   If  you  like to have files larger than 2 GB, you
     need to specify -iso-level 3 or above.  If a HFS  hybrid  is
     created,  the  maximum file size for files in the HFS hybrid
     is 2 GB in any case.

  Hybrid filesystem support
     mkisofs is capable of generating the System Use Sharing Pro-
     tocol records (SUSP) specified by the Rock Ridge Interchange
     Protocol. This is used to further describe the files in  the
     ISO-9660 filesystem to a UNIX host, and provides information
     such as longer filenames, uid/gid, posix  permissions,  sym-
     bolic links, hard links, block and character devices.

     If Joliet, HFS or UDF hybrid command line options are speci-
     fied,  mkisofs  will  create  additional separate filesystem
     meta data for Joliet, HFS or UDF.  The file content in  this
     case  refers  to the same data blocks on the media.  It will
     generate a pure ISO-9660 filesystem unless the  Joliet,  HFS
     or UDF hybrid command line options are given.

     mkisofs can generate a true (or shared) HFS hybrid  filesys-
     tem. The same files are seen as HFS files when accessed from
     a Macintosh and as ISO-9660 files when accessed  from  other
     machines. HFS stands for Hierarchical File System and is the
     native  file  system  used  on  Macintosh  computers  up  to
     Mac OS 9.

     As an alternative, mkisofs can generate the Apple Extensions
     to  ISO-9660  or UDF for each file. These extensions provide
     each file with CREATOR, TYPE and certain Finder  Flags  when
     accessed  from  a Macintosh. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FOR-
     MATS section below.

  Functional description
     mkisofs takes a snapshot of a given directory tree, and gen-
     erates  a  binary image which will correspond to an ISO-9660
     or Joliet/HFS/UDF filesystem when written to a block device.

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     Each file written to the ISO-9660  filesystem  must  have  a
     filename  in the 8.3 format (8 characters, period, 3 charac-
     ters, all upper case), even if Rock Ridge attributes are  in
     use.   This filename is used on systems that are not able to
     make use of the Rock Ridge extensions (such as MS-DOS),  and
     each  filename  in each directory must be different from the
     other filenames in the same  directory.   mkisofs  generally
     tries  to form correct names by forcing the UNIX filename to
     upper case and truncating as required, but often times  this
     yields unsatisfactory results when there are cases where the
     truncated names are not all unique.  mkisofs assigns weight-
     ings  to  each filename, and if two names that are otherwise
     the same are found the  name  with  the  lower  priority  is
     renamed  to have a 3 digit number as an extension (where the
     number is guaranteed to be  unique).   An  example  of  this
     would  be  the  files  foo.bar  and  foo.bar.~1~  - the file
     foo.bar.~1~ would be written as FOO000.BAR;1  and  the  file
     foo.bar would be written as FOO.BAR;1

     When used with various HFS  or  UDF  options,  mkisofs  will
     attempt  to recognise files stored in a number of Apple/Unix
     file formats and will copy the data and  resource  forks  as
     well  as any relevant finder information. See the HFS MACIN-
     TOSH FILE FORMATS  section  below  for  more  about  formats
     mkisofs supports.

     Note that mkisofs is not designed to communicate with  writ-
     ers   for   optical   media  directly.   Most  writers  have
     proprietary command sets which vary from one manufacturer to
     another,  and  you  need a specialized tool like cdrecord to
     actually burn the disk.

     The cdrecord utility is a  utility  capable  of  burning  an
     actual  disc.   The  latest version of cdrecord is available
     from   https://sourceforge.net/projects/cdrtools/files/   or
     https://sourceforge.net/projects/cdrtools/files/alpha/

     Also you should know that most CD writers are very  particu-
     lar about timing.  Once you start to burn a disc, you cannot
     let their buffer empty before you are done, or you will  end
     up  with  a  corrupt  disc.  Thus it is critical that you be
     able to maintain an uninterrupted data stream to the  writer
     for the entire time that the disc is being written.

  Dealing with path names
     pathspec is the path of the directory tree to be copied into
     the  ISO-9660  filesystem.  Multiple paths can be specified,
     and mkisofs will merge the files found in all of the  speci-
     fied path components to form the cdrom image.

     If the option -graft-points has been specified, it is possi-
     ble  to  graft  the  paths  at  points  other  than the root

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Maintenance Procedures                                 MKISOFS(8)

     directory, and it is possible to graft files or  directories
     onto  the  cdrom  image  with names different than what they
     have in the source filesystem.  This is  easiest  to  illus-
     trate  with  a couple of examples.   Let's start by assuming
     that a local file ../old.lis exists, and you wish to include
     it in the cdrom image.

          foo/bar/=../old.lis

     will  include  the  file  old.lis  in  the  cdrom  image  at
     /foo/bar/old.lis, while

          foo/bar/xxx=../old.lis

     will  include  the  file  old.lis  in  the  cdrom  image  at
     /foo/bar/xxx.   The  same  sort  of  syntax can be used with
     directories as well.  mkisofs will  create  any  directories
     required such that the graft points exist on the cdrom image
     - the directories do not need to appear in one of the paths.
     By default, any directories that are created on the fly like
     this will have permissions 0555 and appear to  be  owned  by
     the  person  running mkisofs.  If you wish other permissions
     or owners of the intermediate directories, see  -uid,  -gid,
     -dir-mode, -file-mode and -new-dir-mode.

     mkisofs will also run on Win9x/NTx  machines  when  compiled
     with        Cygnus'       cygwin       (available       from
     http://sourceware.cygnus.com/cygwin/). Therefore most refer-
     ences in this man page to Unix also apply to Win32 or Win64.


OPTIONS

     -abstract FILE
          Specifies the abstract file name in the primary  volume
          descriptor.   There is space on the disc for 37 charac-
          ters of information.  The related Joliet entry is  lim-
          ited  to 18 characters.  This parameter can also be set
          in the file .mkisofsrc with ABST=filename.   If  speci-
          fied in both places, the command line version is used.

          It is up to the user of mkisofs to include a file  with
          the apropriate name in the created filesystem tree.

     -A application_id

     -appid application_id
          Specifies a text string that will be written  into  the
          volume  header.   This  should describe the application
          that will be on the disc.  There is space on  the  disc
          for  128 characters of information.  The related Joliet
          entry is limited to 64 characters.  This parameter  can

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Maintenance Procedures                                 MKISOFS(8)

          also  be  set  in the file .mkisofsrc with APPI=id.  If
          specified in both places, the command line  version  is
          used.

     -allow-leading-dots

     -ldots
          Allow ISO-9660 filenames to begin with a period.   Usu-
          ally,  a  leading dot is replaced with an underscore in
          order to maintain MS-DOS compatibility.
          This violates the ISO-9660 standard, but it happens  to
          work on many systems.  Use with caution.

     -allow-lowercase
          This options allows lower case characters to appear  in
          ISO-9660 filenames.
          This violates the ISO-9660 standard, but it happens  to
          work on some systems.  Use with caution.

     -allow-multidot
          This options allows more than  one  dot  to  appear  in
          ISO-9660  filenames.   A leading dot is not affected by
          this option, it may be  allowed  separately  using  the
          -allow-leading-dots option.
          This violates the ISO-9660 standard, but it happens  to
          work on many systems.  Use with caution.

     -biblio FILE
          Specifies the bibliographic file name  in  the  primary
          volume  descriptor.   There is space on the disc for 37
          characters of information.  The related Joliet entry is
          limited  to  18 characters.  This parameter can also be
          set in the file  .mkisofsrc  with  BIBLO=filename.   If
          specified  in  both places, the command line version is
          used.

          It is up to the user of mkisofs to include a file  with
          the apropriate name in the created filesystem tree.

     -cache-inodes
          Cache inode and device numbers to find  hard  links  to
          files.   If mkisofs finds a hard link (a file with mul-
          tiple names), then the file will only  appear  once  on
          the CD. This helps to save space on the CD.  The option
          -cache-inodes is default on UNIX  like  operating  sys-
          tems.   Be careful when using this option on a filesys-
          tem without unique inode numbers as it  may  result  in
          files containing the wrong content on CD.

          If inodes are not cached, mkisofs will  revert  to  the
          old  Rrip  Version-1.10 (see -rrip110) and mkisofs will
          not be able to create correct inode  numbers  for  zero

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Maintenance Procedures                                 MKISOFS(8)

          sized files.

     -no-cache-inodes
          Do not cache inode and device numbers.  This option  is
          needed whenever a filesystem does not have unique inode
          numbers. It is the default on old Cygwin versions.   As
          the  Microsoft  operating system that runs below Cygwin
          uses 64 bit inode numbers for NTFS, it  does  not  have
          unique  inode  numbers in the 32 bit range.  Old Cygwin
          versions create fake 32-bit inode numbers from  a  hash
          algorithm  and  thus  create  non-unique  numbers.   If
          mkisofs would cache inodes on old Cygwin  versions,  it
          would  believe  that  some files are identical although
          they are not. The result in this case  are  files  that
          contain  the  wrong  content if a significant amount of
          different files (> ~5000) is in inside the tree that is
          to   be  archived.   This  does  not  happen  when  the
          -no-cache-inodes is used, but the disadvantage is  that
          mkisofs cannot detect hardlinks anymore and the result-
          ing CD image may be larger than expected.

          If inodes are not cached, mkisofs will  revert  to  the
          old  Rrip  Version-1.10 (see -rrip110) and mkisofs will
          not be able to create correct inode  numbers  for  zero
          sized files.

     -b eltorito_boot_image

     -eltorito-boot eltorito_boot_image
          Specifies the path and filename of the boot image to be
          used  when making an "El Torito" bootable CD. The path-
          name must be relative to the source path and inside the
          source  tree  specified  to  mkisofs.  This  option  is
          required to make an "El Torito" bootable CD.  The  boot
          image  must be exactly the size of either a 1200, 1440,
          or a 2880 kB floppy, and mkisofs  will  use  this  size
          when  creating  the  output  ISO-9660 filesystem. It is
          assumed that the first 512 byte sector should  be  read
          from the boot image (it is essentially emulating a nor-
          mal floppy drive).  This will work, for example, if the
          boot image is a boot floppy.

          If the boot image is not an image of a floppy, you need
          to   add   one  of  the  options:   -hard-disk-boot  or
          -no-emul-boot.  If the system should not boot  off  the
          emulated disk, use -no-boot.

          More  than  one  boot  entry  may  be  specified,   see
          -eltorito-platform  and  -eltorito-alt-boot  on  how to
          specify more boot entries.  The first boot entry is the
          default   boot  entry.   Additional  boot  entries  are
          members for a multi boot configuration.

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Maintenance Procedures                                 MKISOFS(8)

          If the -sort option has not been  specified,  the  boot
          images  are sorted with low priority (+2) to the begin-
          ning of the medium.  If you don't like this,  you  need
          to specify a sort weight of 0 for the boot images.

     -eltorito-alt-boot
          Start with a new set of "El  Torito"  boot  parameters.
          This  allows to have more than one El Torito boot entry
          on a CD.  A maximum of 63 El Torito boot entries may be
          put on a single CD.

          The -eltorito-alt-boot option starts a new  boot  entry
          with  the  same  platform  id  but  no new boot section
          except when it appears past the first boot entry  which
          is the default boot entry.

     -eltorito-platform id
          Set the "El Torito" platform id for a boot record or  a
          section  of  boot  records.   The.  id parameter may be
          either:

          x86  This is the default platform id value  and  speci-
               fies   entries   for   the  PC  platform.   If  no
               -eltorito-platform option appears before the first
               -eltorito-boot  option,  the  default  boot  entry
               becomes an entry for the x86 PC platform.

          PPC  Boot entries for the Power PC platform.

          Mac  Boot entries for the Apple Mac platform.

          efi  Boot entries for EFI based PCs.

          #    A numeric value specifying any platform id.

          If the option  -eltorito-platform  appears  before  the
          first  -eltorito-boot  option,  it sets the platform id
          for the default boot entry.

          If  the  option  -eltorito-platform  appears  after  an
          -eltorito-boot  option  and  sets  the platform id to a
          value different from the previous value,  it  starts  a
          new set of boot entries.

          The second boot entry and any new platform id creates a
          new  section  header  and  reduces  the  number of boot
          entries per CD by one.

     errctl= name

     errctl= error control spec

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          Add the content from file name  to  the  error  control
          definitions or add error control spec to the error con-
          trol definitions.  More than one error control file and
          more  than  one error control spec as well as a mixture
          of both forms is possible.

          The reason for using error control is to  make  mkisofs
          quiet  about  error  conditions  that  are  known to be
          irrelevant on the quality of the created filesystem  or
          to  tell  mkisofs  to abort on certain error conditions
          instead of trying to continue with the filesystem.

          A typical reason to use error control  is  to  suppress
          warnings  about  growing log files while doing a backup
          on a live file system.  Another typical reason  to  use
          error  control  is  to  tell mkisofs to abort if e.g. a
          file could not be archived  instead  of  continuing  to
          archive other files from a list.

          The error control file contains a set  of  lines,  each
          starting  with a list of error conditions to be ignored
          followed by white space followed by a file name pattern
          (see  match(1)  or  patmatch(3)  for more information).
          The error control spec uses the same syntax as a single
          line  from  the  error  control file.  If the file name
          pattern  needs  to  start  with  white  space,  use   a
          backslash  to  escape the start of the file name. It is
          not possible to have new line characters  in  the  file
          name  pattern.   Whenever an error situation is encoun-
          tered, mkisofs checks the lines in  the  error  control
          file  starting from the top.  If the current error con-
          dition is listed on a line in the error  control  file,
          then  mkisofs checks whether the pattern on the rest of
          the line matches the current file name.  If this is the
          case, mkisofs uses the current error control specifica-
          tion to control the current error condition.

          The list of error conditions to be handled may use  one
          or  more  (in  this  case separated by a '|' character)
          identifiers from the list below:

          ABORT       If this meta condition is  included  in  an
                      error  condition, mkisofs aborts (exits) as
                      soon as possible after this error condition
                      has  been  seen  instead  of making mkisofs
                      quiet about the condition.  This error con-
                      dition  flag may only be used together with
                      at another error condition  or  a  list  of
                      error  conditions (separated by a '|' char-
                      acter).

          WARN        If this meta condition is  included  in  an

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Maintenance Procedures                                 MKISOFS(8)

                      error condition, mkisofs prints the warning
                      about the error  condition  but  the  error
                      condition  does not affect the exit code of
                      mkisofs and the error statistics (which  is
                      printed  to  the  end) does not include the
                      related errors.  This error condition  flag
                      may  only  be used together with at another
                      error condition or a list of  error  condi-
                      tions  (separated by a '|' character).  The
                      WARN meta condition has a lower  precedence
                      than ABORT.

          ALL         This is a shortcut for all error conditions
                      below.

          STAT        Suppress warnings that  mkisofs  could  not
                      stat(2) a file.

          GETACL      Suppress  warnings  about  files  on  which
                      mkisofs  had  problems  to retrieve the ACL
                      information.

          OPEN        Suppress warnings about  files  that  could
                      not be opened.

          READ        Suppress warnings read errors on files.

          WRITE       Suppress warnings write errors on files.

          READLINK    Suppress  warnings  readlink(2)  errors  on
                      symbolic links.

          GROW        Suppress warnings about files that did grow
                      while they have been archived.

          SHRINK      Suppress  warnings  about  files  that  did
                      shrink while they have been archived.

          MISSLINK    Suppress warnings  about  files  for  which
                      mkisofs  was  unable  to  archive  all hard
                      links.

          NAMETOOLONG Suppress warnings about  files  that  could
                      not  be  archived  because  the name of the
                      file is too long for the archive format.

          FILETOOBIG  Suppress warnings about  files  that  could
                      not  be  archived  because  the size of the
                      file is too big for the archive format.

          SPECIALFILE Suppress warnings about  files  that  could
                      not  be  archived  because the file type is

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                      not supported by the archive format.

          GETXATTR    Suppress  warnings  about  files  on   that
                      mkisofs  could  not  retrieve  the extended
                      file attribute information.

          SETTIME     Suppress  warnings  about  files  on   that
                      mkisofs  could not set the time information
                      during extraction.

          SETMODE     Suppress  warnings  about  files  on   that
                      mkisofs could not set the access modes dur-
                      ing extraction.

          SECURITY    Suppress warnings  about  files  that  have
                      been  skipped  on  extraction  because they
                      have been considered to be a security risk.
                      This  currently  applies  to all files that
                      have a '/../' sequence inside when -..  has
                      not been specified.

          LSECURITY   Suppress warnings  about  links  that  have
                      been  skipped  on  extraction  because they
                      have been considered to be a security risk.
                      This  currently  applies  to all link names
                      that  start  with  '/'  or  have  a  '/../'
                      sequence inside when -secure-links has been
                      specified.  In this case, mkisofs tries  to
                      match  the link name against the pattern in
                      the error control file.

          SAMEFILE    Suppress warnings  about  links  that  have
                      been  skipped  on extraction because source
                      and target of the link are pointing to  the
                      same file.  If mkisofs would not skip these
                      files, it would end up  with  removing  the
                      file  completely.   In  this  case, mkisofs
                      tries to match the link  name  against  the
                      pattern in the error control file.

          BADACL      Suppress  warnings  access   control   list
                      conversion problems.

          SETACL      Suppress  warnings  about  files  on   that
                      mkisofs  could  not set the ACL information
                      during extraction.

          SETXATTR    Suppress  warnings  about  files  on   that
                      mkisofs  could  not  set  the extended file
                      attribute information during extraction.

     If a specific error condition is  ignored,  then  the  error

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     condition  is  not  only  handled  in  a silent way but also
     excluded from the error statistics that are printed  at  the
     end of the mkisofs run.

     Be very careful when using error control as you  may  ignore
     any  error  condition.  If you ignore the wrong error condi-
     tions, you may not be able to see real problems anymore.

     Note that currently only the tags OPEN, READ, GROW,  SHRINK,
     are checked from mkisofs.

     -B img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e

     -sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
          Specifies a comma separated list of  boot  images  that
          are  needed  to  make  a bootable CD for sparc systems.
          Partition 0 is used for the ISO-9660 image,  the  first
          image  file  is  mapped  to  partition 1.  There may be
          empty fields in the comma separated list.  The  maximum
          number  of possible partitions is 8 so it is impossible
          to specify more than 7 partition images.   This  option
          is  required  to  make a bootable CD for Sun sparc sys-
          tems.  If the -B or -sparc-boot option has been  speci-
          fied, the first sector of the resulting image will con-
          tain a Sun disk label. This disk label specifies  slice
          0  for  the  ISO-9660 image and slice 1 ... slice 7 for
          the boot images that  have  been  specified  with  this
          option.  Byte  offset  512  ... 8191 within each of the
          additional boot images must contain a primary boot that
          works  for the appropriate sparc architecture. The rest
          of each of the images usually contains an ufs  filesys-
          tem that is used primary kernel boot stage.

          The implemented boot method is the  boot  method  found
          with  SunOS  4.x  and  SunOS 5.x.  However, it does not
          depend on SunOS internals but only on properties of the
          Open  Boot  prom.  For this reason, it should be usable
          for any OS that boots off a sparc system.

          For more information also see the NOTES section below.

          If the special filename ... is used, the actual and all
          following  boot  partitions  are mapped to the previous
          partition. If mkisofs is called with -G  image  -B  ...
          all  boot  partitions  are mapped to the partition that
          contains the ISO-9660 filesystem image and the  generic
          boot  image  that is located in the first 16 sectors of
          the disk is used for all architectures.

     -G generic_boot_image
          Specifies the path and filename  of  the  generic  boot

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          image  to  be  used  when making a generic bootable CD.
          The generic_boot_image will be placed on the  first  16
          sectors of the CD. The first 16 sectors are the sectors
          that are located before  the  ISO-9660  primary  volume
          descriptor.   If  this option is used together with the
          -sparc-boot option, the Sun disk label will overlay the
          first 512 bytes of the generic boot image.

     -hard-disk-boot
          Specifies that the boot image used to create  "El  Tor-
          ito"  bootable  CDs is a hard disk image. The hard disk
          image must begin with a master boot  record  that  con-
          tains a single partition.

     -ignore-error
          Ignore errors.  mkisofs by default  aborts  on  several
          errors,  such  as  read  errors.  With  this  option in
          effect, mkisofs tries to continue.  Use with care.

     -no-emul-boot
          Specifies that the boot image used to create  "El  Tor-
          ito" bootable CDs is a 'no emulation' image. The system
          will load and execute this image without performing any
          disk emulation.

     -no-boot
          Specifies that the created "El  Torito"  CD  should  be
          marked as not bootable. The system will provide an emu-
          lated drive for the image, but will boot off a standard
          boot device.

     -boot-load-seg segment_address
          Specifies the load segment address of  the  boot  image
          for no-emulation "El Torito" CDs.

     -boot-load-size load_sectors
          Specifies the number of "virtual" (512-byte) sectors to
          load  in no-emulation mode.  The default is to load the
          entire boot file.  Some BIOSes  may  have  problems  if
          this is not a multiple of 4.

     -boot-info-table
          Specifies that a 56-byte table with information of  the
          CD-ROM  layout  will  be  patched in at offset 8 in the
          boot file.  If this option is given, the boot  file  is
          modified in the source filesystem, so make sure to make
          a copy if this file cannot be easily regenerated!   See
          the EL TORITO BOOT INFO TABLE section for a description
          of this table.

     -C last_sess_start,next_sess_start

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     -cdrecord-params last_sess_start,next_sess_start
          This option is needed when mkisofs is used to create  a
          CDextra  or  the  image of a second session or a higher
          level session for a multi session disk.  The option  -C
          takes  a  pair of two numbers separated by a comma. The
          first number is the sector number of the  first  sector
          in the last session of the disk that should be appended
          to.  The second number is the starting sector number of
          the  new  session.  The expected pair of numbers may be
          retrieved by calling cdrecord -msinfo  ...  If  the  -C
          option  is  used  in  conjunction  with  the -M option,
          mkisofs will create a filesystem image that is intended
          to  be  a continuation of the previous session.  If the
          -C option is used without the -M option,  mkisofs  will
          create  a  filesystem image that is intended to be used
          for a second session on a CDextra. This is a multi ses-
          sion  CD that holds audio data in the first session and
          a ISO-9660 filesystem in the second session.

     -c boot_catalog

     -eltorito-catalog boot_catalog
          Specifies the path and filename of the boot catalog  to
          be  used  when  making  an "El Torito" bootable CD. The
          pathname must be relative to the source path  specified
          to  mkisofs. This option is required to make a bootable
          CD.  This file will be inserted into  the  output  tree
          and  not  created  in the source filesystem, so be sure
          the specified filename does not conflict with an exist-
          ing  file,  as it will be excluded. Usually a name like
          "boot.catalog" is chosen.

          If the -sort option has not been  specified,  the  boot
          catalog  sorted with low priority (+1) to the beginning
          of the medium.  If you don't like  this,  you  need  to
          specify a sort weight of 0 for the boot catalog.

     -check-oldnames
          Check all filenames imported from old session for  com-
          pliance with actual mkisofs ISO-9660 file naming rules.
          It his option is not present, only names with a  length
          > 31 are checked as these files are a hard violation of
          the ISO-9660 standard.

     -check-session FILE
          Check all  old  sessions  for  compliance  with  actual
          mkisofs  ISO-9660  file  naming  rules.  This is a high
          level option that is a combination of the options:   -M
          FILE  -C 0,0 -check-oldnames For the parameter FILE see
          description of -M option.

     -copyright FILE

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Maintenance Procedures                                 MKISOFS(8)

          Specifies the Copyright file name in the primary volume
          descriptor.   There is space on the disc for 37 charac-
          ters of information.  The related Joliet entry is  lim-
          ited  to 18 characters.  This parameter can also be set
          in the file .mkisofsrc with COPY=filename.   If  speci-
          fied in both places, the command line version is used.

          It is up to the user of mkisofs to include a file  with
          the apropriate name in the created filesystem tree.

     -d

     -omit-period
          Omit trailing period from files  that  do  not  have  a
          period.
          This violates the ISO-9660 standard, but it happens  to
          work on many systems.  Use with caution.

     -D

     -disable-deep-relocation
          Do not use deep directory relocation, and instead  just
          pack them in the way we see them.
          If ISO-9660:1999 has not been selected,  this  violates
          the  ISO-9660  standard, but it happens to work on many
          systems.  Use with caution.

     -data-change-warn
          If the size of a file changes while the file  is  being
          archived,  treat  this condition as a warning only that
          does not cause mkisofs to abort.  A warning message  is
          still written if the condition is not otherwise ignored
          by  another  rule  from   an   errctl=   option.    The
          -data-change-warn  option  works  as  if the last error
          control option was

               errctl="WARN|GROW|SHRINK *"

     -debug
          Increment debug value by one.

     -dir-mode mode
          Overrides the mode of directories used  to  create  the
          image  to  mode.  See -new-dir-mode on how to specify a
          different mode that is used for directories that do not
          exist in the tree specified by the source-path.  Speci-
          fying the -dir-mode option automatically  enables  Rock
          Ridge extensions.

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Maintenance Procedures                                 MKISOFS(8)

     -dvd-audio
          Generate DVD-Audio compliant UDF file system.  This  is
          done  by  sorting  the  order  of  the  content  of the
          appropriate files.  Sorting only works if the DVD-Audio
          filenames include upper case characters only.

          Note  that  in  order  to  get  a  DVD-Audio  compliant
          filesystem  image, you need to prepare a DVD-Audio com-
          pliant directory tree. This means you need  to  have  a
          directory  AUDIO_TS (all caps) in the root directory of
          the resulting DVD  and  you  should  have  a  directory
          VIDEO_TS.  The  directory AUDIO_TS needs to include all
          needed files (file names must be all caps) for  a  com-
          pliant DVD-Audio filesystem.

     -dvd-hybrid
          Equivalent to selecting both -dvd-audio and -dvd-video

     -dvd-video
          Generate DVD-Video compliant UDF file system.  This  is
          done  by  sorting  the  order  of  the  content  of the
          appropriate files and by  adding  padding  between  the
          files  if  needed.  Sorting only works if the DVD-Video
          filenames include upper case characters only.

          Note  that  in  order  to  get  a  DVD-Video  compliant
          filesystem  image, you need to prepare a DVD-Video com-
          pliant directory tree. This means you need  to  have  a
          directory  VIDEO_TS (all caps) in the root directory of
          the resulting DVD  and  you  should  have  a  directory
          AUDIO_TS.  The  directory VIDEO_TS needs to include all
          needed files (file names must be all caps) for  a  com-
          pliant DVD-Video filesystem.

     -f

     -follow-links
          Follow all symbolic links when generating the  filesys-
          tem.   When  this  option is not in use, symbolic links
          will be entered using Rock Ridge if enabled,  otherwise
          the file will be ignored.

          See also -posix-L option.

     -file-mode mode
          Overrides the mode of regular files used to create  the
          image  to  mode.   Specifying this option automatically
          enables Rock Ridge extensions.

     -find
          This option acts a  separator.   If  it  is  used,  all
          mkisofs  options  must  be  to  the  left  of the -find

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Maintenance Procedures                                 MKISOFS(8)

          option. To the  right  of  the  -find  option,  mkisofs
          accepts the find command line syntax only.

          The find expression acts as a filter between the source
          of  file  names  and  the  consumer, which is archiving
          engine.  If the find expression evaluated as TRUE, then
          the  related file is selected for processing, otherwise
          it is omited.

          In order to make the evaluation of the find  expression
          more  convenient,  mkisofs  implements  additional find
          primaries that have side effects on the file meta data.
          Mkisofs  implements  the following additional find pri-
          maries:

          -help
               Lists the available find(1) syntax.

          -chgrp gname
               The primary always evaluates as true; it sets  the
               group of the file to gname.

          -chmod mode
               The primary always evaluates as true; it sets  the
               permissions  of  the file to mode.  Octal and sym-
               bolic permissions are accepted for  mode  as  with
               chmod(1).

          -chown uname
               The primary always evaluates as true; it sets  the
               owner of the file to uname.

          -false
               The primary always evaluates as false;  it  allows
               to  make  the  result  of the full expression dif-
               ferent from the result of a part  of  the  expres-
               sion.

          -true
               The primary always evaluates as true; it allows to
               make  the  result of the full expression different
               from the result of a part of the expression.

          The command line:

          mkisofs -o o.iso -find . ( -type d -ls -o false ) -o  !
          -type d

          lists all directories and puts all  non-directories  to
          the image o.iso.

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Maintenance Procedures                                 MKISOFS(8)

          The command line:

          mkisofs -o o.iso -find . ( -type d -chown root -o  true
          )

          archives all directories so they appear to be owned  by
          root  in  the archive, all non-directories are archived
          as they are in the file system.

          Note that the -ls, -exec and the -ok primary cannot  be
          used if stdin or stdout has not been redirected.

     -gid gid
          Overrides the gid read from the  source  files  to  the
          value  of  gid.   Specifying  this option automatically
          enables Rock Ridge extensions.

     -gui Switch the behaviour for a GUI.  This  currently  makes
          the  output  more verbose but may have other effects in
          future.

     -graft-points
          Allow to use graft points for filenames. If this option
          is  used,  all  filenames are checked for graft points.
          The filename is divided at the  first  unescaped  equal
          sign.  All  occurrences of '\\' and '=' characters must
          be escaped with '\\' if -graft-points has  been  speci-
          fied.

     -hide glob
          Hide glob from being seen on the ISO-9660 or Rock Ridge
          directory.   glob  is  a  shell wild-card-style pattern
          that must match any part of the filename or path.  Mul-
          tiple  globs  may  be hidden.  If glob matches a direc-
          tory, then the contents of that directory will be  hid-
          den.  In order to match a directory name, make sure the
          pathname does not include  a  trailing  '/'  character.
          All  the hidden files will still be written to the out-
          put  CD  image  file.   Should   be   used   with   the
          -hide-joliet option. See README.hide for more details.

     -hide-list file
          A file containing a list  of  globs  to  be  hidden  as
          above.

     -hidden glob
          Add the hidden (existence) ISO-9660 directory attribute
          for  glob.  This attribute will prevent glob from being
          listed on DOS based systems if the /A flag is not  used
          for  the listing.  glob is a shell wild-card-style pat-
          tern that must match any part of the filename or  path.
          In  order  to  match  a  directory  name, make sure the

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Maintenance Procedures                                 MKISOFS(8)

          pathname does not include  a  trailing  '/'  character.
          Multiple globs may be hidden.

     -hidden-list file
          A file containing a list of globs  to  get  the  hidden
          attribute as above.

     -hide-joliet glob
          Hide glob from being  seen  on  the  Joliet  directory.
          glob is a shell wild-card-style pattern that must match
          any part of the filename or path.  Multiple  globs  may
          be  hidden.  If glob matches a directory, then the con-
          tents of that directory will be hidden.   In  order  to
          match a directory name, make sure the pathname does not
          include a trailing '/' character.  All the hidden files
          will  still  be  written  to  the output CD image file.
          Should be used with the -hide option.  See  README.hide
          for more details.

     -hide-joliet-list file
          A file containing a list  of  globs  to  be  hidden  as
          above.

     -hide-joliet-trans-tbl
          Hide the TRANS.TBL files from the Joliet  tree.   These
          files  usually  don't make sense in the Joliet World as
          they list the real name and the ISO-9660 name which may
          both be different from the Joliet name.

     -hide-rr-moved
          Rename the directory RR_MOVED to .rr_moved in the  Rock
          Ridge  tree.   This  option  has  been  introduced when
          mkisofs was not able to hide the directory in the  Rock
          Ridge  tree.   This version of mkisofs always automati-
          cally hides the RR_MOVED directory in  the  Rock  Ridge
          tree.  If you need to have no RR_MOVED directory at all
          (even in the ISO-9660 tree),  you  should  use  the  -D
          option.  Note  that in case that the -D option has been
          specified, the resulting  filesystem  is  not  ISO-9660
          level-1  compliant  and will not be readable on MS-DOS.
          See also NOTES section  for  more  information  on  the
          RR_MOVED directory.

     -hide-udf glob
          Hide glob from being seen on the UDF  directory.   glob
          is  a shell wild-card-style pattern that must match any
          part of the filename or path.  Multiple  globs  may  be
          hidden.  If glob matches a directory, then the contents
          of that directory will be hidden.  In order to match  a
          directory name, make sure the pathname does not include
          a trailing '/' character.  All the  hidden  files  will

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Maintenance Procedures                                 MKISOFS(8)

          still  be  written to the output CD image file.  Should
          be used with the -hide option. See README.hide for more
          details.

     -hide-udf-list file
          A file containing a list  of  globs  to  be  hidden  as
          above.

     -input-charset charset
          Set up the input charset that  defines  the  characters
          used in local file names.  To get a list of valid char-
          set names, call mkisofs -input-charset help. To  get  a
          1:1  mapping,  you  may use default as charset name. If
          the input charset has not been set up from  the  locale
          in  the  environment,  the  default  initial values are
          cp437 on DOS based systems and iso8859-1 on  all  other
          systems.   See  CHARACTER  SETS  section below for more
          details.

          If -input-charset has not been specified,  it  will  be
          set  up from the locale in the environment. If you like
          to disable this automatic setup, use the  empty  string
          as locale name.

     -output-charset charset
          Set up the output charset that defines  the  characters
          that will be used in Rock Ridge file names. Defaults to
          the input charset. See CHARACTER SETS section below for
          more details.

     -iso-level level
          Set the ISO-9660 conformance level. Valid  numbers  are
          1..3 and 4.

          With level 1, files may only consist of one section and
          filenames are restricted to 8.3 characters.

          With level 2, files may only consist of one section.

          With  level  3,  no  restrictions  (other   than   ISO-
          9660:1988) do apply.  Starting with this level, mkisofs
          also allows files to be larger than 4 GB by  implement-
          ing ISO-9660 multi-extent files.

          With all ISO-9660 levels from 1..3, all  filenames  are
          restricted  to  upper  case  letters,  numbers  and the
          underscore (_). The maximum  filename  length  is  res-
          tricted  to  31 characters, the directory nesting level
          is restricted to 8 and the maximum path length is  lim-
          ited to 255 characters.

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Maintenance Procedures                                 MKISOFS(8)

          Level 4 officially does not exists but mkisofs maps  it
          to ISO-9660:1999 which is ISO-9660 version 2.

          With level 4, an enhanced volume descriptor  with  ver-
          sion  number and file structure version number set to 2
          is emitted.  There may be more than 8 levels of  direc-
          tory  nesting, there is no need for a file to contain a
          dot and the dot has no more special meaning, file names
          do  not  have  version  numbers, the maximum length for
          files and directory is raised to 207.  If Rock Ridge is
          used,  the  maximum  ISO-9660 name length is reduced to
          197.

          When  creating  Version  2  images,  mkisofs  emits  an
          enhanced  volume  descriptor  which  looks similar to a
          primary volume descriptor but is slightly different. Be
          careful  not  to  use  broken software to make ISO-9660
          images bootable by  assuming  a  second  PVD  copy  and
          patching this putative PVD copy into an El Torito VD.

     -J   Generate Joliet directory records in addition to  regu-
          lar ISO-9660 file names.  This is primarily useful when
          the discs are to be used on  Windows-NT  or  Windows-95
          machines.    The  Joliet  filenames  are  specified  in
          Unicode and each path component can be up to 64 Unicode
          characters  long.   Note  that  Joliet is no standard -
          CD's that use only Joliet extensions  but  no  standard
          Rock  Ridge  extensions  may  usually  only  be used on
          Microsoft Win32 systems. Furthermore, the fact that the
          filenames  are  limited  to  64 characters and the fact
          that Joliet uses the UTF-16 coding for Unicode  charac-
          ters causes interoperability problems.

     -joliet-long
          Allow Joliet filenames to be up to 103 Unicode  charac-
          ters.  This  breaks  the  Joliet  specification  -  but
          appears to work. Use with caution. The  number  103  is
          derived  from:  the  maximum  Directory  Record  Length
          (254), minus the length of Directory Record (33), minus
          CD-ROM   XA  System  Use  Extension  Information  (14),
          divided by the UTF-16 character size (2).

     -jcharset charset
          Same as using -input-charset charset  and  -J  options.
          See CHARACTER SETS section below for more details.

     -l

     -full-iso9660-filenames
          Allow full 31 character filenames.  Normally  the  ISO-
          9660  filename will be in an 8.3 format which is compa-
          tible with MS-DOS, even though  the  ISO-9660  standard

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Maintenance Procedures                                 MKISOFS(8)

          allows  filenames  of  up to 31 characters.  If you use
          this option, the disc may be difficult to use on a  MS-
          DOS  system, but this comes in handy on some other sys-
          tems (such as the Amiga).  Use with caution.

     -L   Outdated   option   reserved   by   POSIX.1-2001,   use
          -allow-leading-dots  instead.   This  option  will  get
          POSIX.1-2001 semantics with mkisofs-3.02.

     -log-file log_file
          Redirect all error, warning and informational  messages
          to log_file instead of the standard error.

     -long-rr-time
          Use the long ISO-9660 time format  for  the  file  time
          stamps  used in Rock Ridge.  This time format allows to
          represent year 0 .. year 9999  with  a  granularity  of
          10ms.

          The short ISO-9660 time format only allows to represent
          year 1900 .. year 2155 with a granularity of 1s.

     -m glob
          Exclude glob from being written to CDROM.   glob  is  a
          shell  wild-card-style  pattern that must match part of
          the filename (not the path as with option -x).  Techni-
          cally glob is matched against the d->d_name part of the
          directory  entry.   Multiple  globs  may  be  excluded.
          Example:

          mkisofs -o rom -m '*.o' -m core -m foobar

          would exclude all files ending in ".o",  called  "core"
          or "foobar" to be copied to CDROM. Note that if you had
          a directory called "foobar" it too (and of  course  all
          its descendants) would be excluded.

          NOTE: The -m and -x option description should  both  be
          updated,  they  are wrong.  Both now work identical and
          use filename globbing. A file is excluded if either the
          last component matches or the whole path matches.

     -exclude-list file
          A file containing a list of globs  to  be  excluded  as
          above.

     -max-iso9660-filenames
          Allow 37 chars  in  ISO-9660  filenames.   This  option
          forces  the  -N option as the extra name space is taken
          from the space reserved for ISO-9660 version numbers.
          This violates the ISO-9660 standard, but it happens  to
          work   on   many   systems.    Although   a  conforming

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Maintenance Procedures                                 MKISOFS(8)

          application needs to provide a buffer space of at least
          37 characters, disks created with this option may cause
          a buffer overflow in the reading operating system.  Use
          with extreme care.

     -M path
          or

     -M device
          or

     -dev device
          Specifies path to existing ISO-9660 image to be merged.
          The  alternate  form takes a SCSI device specifier that
          uses the same syntax as the dev= parameter of cdrecord.
          The  output  of  mkisofs  will  be  a new session which
          should get written to the end of the image specified in
          -M.   Typically  this requires multi-session capability
          for the recorder and cdrom drive that you are  attempt-
          ing  to  write  this image to.  This option may only be
          used in conjunction with the -C option.

     -modification-date date-spec
          Set  the  modification  date  in  the  primary   volume
          descriptor  (PVD) to a value different from the current
          time.  This allows e.g. to set up an  intentional  UUID
          for grub.

          The format of date-spec is:

               yyyy[mm[dd[hh[mm[ss]]]]][.hh][+-ghgm]

          The fields are year, month, day of month, hour, minute,
          second,  hundreds  of a second, GMT offset in hours and
          minutes.  The time is interpreted as local time.

          Year and the GMT offset  are  four  digit  fields,  all
          other  fields  take  two digits.  The GMT offset may be
          between -12 and +13 hours in 15 minute steps. Locations
          east  to  Greenwich  have positive values. The value is
          the sum of the time zone offset and  the  effects  from
          daylight  saving  time.   Omited values are replaced by
          the minimal possible values.   If  the  GMT  offset  is
          omited,  it  is computed from the local time value that
          has been supplied.

          Between year and month as well as between month and day
          of  month,  a  separator  chosen  from  '/' and '-' may
          appear. In this case, the  year  may  be  a  two  digit
          number  with  values 69..99 representing 1969..1999 and
          values 00..68 representing  2000..2068.   Between  date
          and  time spec, an optional space is permitted. Between

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Maintenance Procedures                                 MKISOFS(8)

          hours and  minutes  as  well  as  between  minutes  and
          seconds,  an optional ':' separator is permitted.  This
          allows mkisofs to parse the popular POSIX  date  format
          created by:

               date "+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S %z"

          Note that the possible range for date-spec for  32  bit
          programs  is  limited  to  values  up  to  2038  Jan 19
          04:14:07 GMT.

     -N

     -omit-version-number
          Omit version numbers from ISO-9660 file names.
          This violates the ISO-9660 standard, but no one  really
          uses the version numbers anyway.  Use with caution.

     -new-dir-mode mode
          Mode to use when creating new directories in the iso fs
          image.   The default mode in the absence of a -dir-mode
          option is 0555.

     -nobak

     -no-bak
          Do not include  backup  files  files  on  the  ISO-9660
          filesystem.   If the -no-bak option is specified, files
          that contain the characters '~' or '#' or end in '.bak'
          will  not be included (these are typically backup files
          for editors under UNIX).

     -no-limit-pathtables
          A ISO-9660 filesystem contains path tables that contain
          a  list  of  directories.   This  list may contain many
          directories but only 65535 of them may be parent direc-
          tories.   When  -no-limit-pathtables is in use, further
          parent directories will be folded to the root directory
          and  the  resulting filesystem will no longer be usable
          on DOS.

     -no-long-rr-time
          Use the short ISO-9660 time format for  the  file  time
          stamps  used in Rock Ridge.  This time format allows to
          represent year 1990 .. year 2155 with a granularity  of
          one second.

     -force-rr
          Do not use the automatic Rock Ridge attributes recogni-
          tion  for previous sessions.  This helps to show rotten
          ISO-9660 extension records  as  e.g.  created  by  NERO
          burning ROM.

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     -no-rr
          Do not use the Rock Ridge attributes from previous ses-
          sions.   This  may  help  to avoid getting into trouble
          when mkisofs finds illegal Rock Ridge signatures on  an
          old session.

     -no-split-symlink-components
          Don't split the SL components, but  begin  a  new  Con-
          tinuation Area (CE) instead. This may waste some space,
          but the SunOS 4.1.4 cdrom driver has a bug  in  reading
          split SL components (link_size = component_size instead
          of link_size += component_size).

          Note that this  option  has  been  introduced  by  Eric
          Youngdale in 1997.  It is questionable whether it makes
          sense at all.  When it has been introduced, mkisofs did
          have  a serious bug that did create defective CE signa-
          tures if a symlink contained `/../'.  This CE signature
          bug in mkisofs has been fixed in May 2003.

     -no-split-symlink-fields
          Don't split the SL fields, but begin a new Continuation
          Area  (CE)  instead. This may waste some space, but the
          SunOS 4.1.4 and Solaris 2.5.1 cdrom driver have  a  bug
          in reading split SL fields (a `/' can be dropped).

          Note that this  option  has  been  introduced  by  Eric
          Youngdale in 1997.  It is questionable whether it makes
          sense at all.  When it has been introduced, mkisofs did
          have  a serious bug that did create defective CE signa-
          tures if a symlink contained `/../'.  This CE signature
          bug in mkisofs has been fixed in May 2003.

     -o filename
          is the name of the file to which the ISO-9660  filesys-
          tem  image should be written.  This can be a disk file,
          a tape drive, or it can correspond directly to the dev-
          ice name of the optical disc writer.  If not specified,
          stdout is used.  Note that the output  can  also  be  a
          block special device for a regular disk drive, in which
          case the disk partition can be mounted and examined  to
          ensure that the premastering was done correctly.

     -pad Pad the end of the whole image by 150 sectors (300 kB).
          If  the  option  -B is used, then there is a padding at
          the end of the ISO-9660 partition and before the begin-
          ning  of the boot partitions.  The size of this padding
          is chosen to make the first boot partition start  on  a
          sector number that is a multiple of 16.

          The padding is needed as many operating  systems  (e.g.
          Linux)  implement  read  ahead bugs in their filesystem

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Maintenance Procedures                                 MKISOFS(8)

          I/O. These bugs result in read errors on  one  or  more
          files  that are located at the end of a track. They are
          usually present when the CD is written in Track at Once
          mode or when the disk is written as mixed mode CD where
          an audio track follows the data track.

          To avoid problems with I/O error on the  last  file  on
          the  filesystem,  the  -pad  option  has  been made the
          default.

     -no-pad
          Do not Pad the end by 150 sectors (300 kB) and  do  not
          make  the the boot partitions start on a multiple of 16
          sectors.

     -path-list file
          A file containing a list of  pathspec  directories  and
          filenames  to be added to the ISO-9660 filesystem. This
          list of pathspecs are processed after any  that  appear
          on  the  command  line.  If the argument is -, then the
          list is read from the standard input.

     -P   Outdated option reserved  by  POSIX.1-2001,  use  -pub-
          lisher  instead.   This  option  will  get POSIX.1-2001
          semantics with mkisofs-3.02.

     -publisher publisher_id
          Specifies a text string that will be written  into  the
          volume  header.   This should describe the publisher of
          the CDROM, usually with a  mailing  address  and  phone
          number.   There is space on the disc for 128 characters
          of information.  The related Joliet entry is limited to
          64  characters.   This parameter can also be set in the
          file .mkisofsrc  with  PUBL=.   If  specified  in  both
          places, the command line version is used.

     -p preparer_id

     -preparer preparer_id
          Specifies a text string that will be written  into  the
          volume  header.   This  should describe the preparer of
          the CDROM, usually with a  mailing  address  and  phone
          number.   There is space on the disc for 128 characters
          of information.  The related Joliet entry is limited to
          64  characters.   This parameter can also be set in the
          file .mkisofsrc  with  PREP=.   If  specified  in  both
          places, the command line version is used.

     -posix-H
          Follow all symbolic links encountered on  command  line
          when generating the filesystem.

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Maintenance Procedures                                 MKISOFS(8)

     -posix-L
          Follow all symbolic links when generating the  filesys-
          tem.   When  this  option is not in use, symbolic links
          will be entered using Rock Ridge if enabled,  otherwise
          the file will be ignored.

     -posix-P
          Do  not  follow  symbolic  links  when  generating  the
          filesystem  (this  is  the  default).   If  -posix-P is
          specified after -posix-H or  -posix-L,  the  effect  of
          these options will be reset.

     -print-size
          Print estimated filesystem size  in  multiples  of  the
          sector  size  (2048  bytes)  and  exit.  This option is
          needed for Disk At Once mode and with some CD-R  drives
          when  piping directly into cdrecord. In this case it is
          needed to know the size of the  filesystem  before  the
          actual  CD-creation  is  done.   The option -print-size
          allows to get this size from a "dry-run" before the  CD
          is actually written.  Old versions of mkisofs did write
          this information (among other information)  to  stderr.
          As  this  turns  out  to  be  hard to parse, the number
          without any other information is now printed on  stdout
          too.   If  you  like  to  write  a simple shell script,
          redirect stderr and catch the number from stdout.  This
          may be done with:

          cdblocks=` mkisofs -print-size -quiet ... `

          mkisofs ... | cdrecord ... tsize=${cdblocks}s -

     -quiet
          This makes mkisofs even less verbose.  No progress out-
          put will be provided.

     -R

     -rock
          Generate SUSP and RR records using the Rock Ridge  pro-
          tocol  to  further  describe  the files on the ISO-9660
          filesystem.  The Rock Ridge protocol is needed in order
          to  add  POSIX  like  file  meta data like permissions,
          extended time stamps,  user/group  is'd,  link  counts,
          inode numbers and symbolic links. The Rock Ridge proto-
          col allows to archive hierarchy  trees  with  unlimited
          depth.

     -r

     -rational-rock
          This is like the -R  option,  but  file  ownership  and

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Maintenance Procedures                                 MKISOFS(8)

          modes  are  set to more useful values.  The uid and gid
          are set to zero, because they are usually  only  useful
          on  the  author's system, and not useful to the client.
          All the file read bits are set true, so that files  and
          directories  are  globally  readable on the client.  If
          any execute bit is set for a file, set all of the  exe-
          cute  bits, so that executables are globally executable
          on the client.  If any search bit is set for  a  direc-
          tory,  set  all of the search bits, so that directories
          are globally searchable on the client.  All write  bits
          are  cleared,  because the CD-Rom will be mounted read-
          only in any case.  If any of the special mode bits  are
          set, clear them, because file locks are not useful on a
          read-only file system, and set-id bits are  not  desir-
          able  for uid 0 or gid 0.  When used on Win32, the exe-
          cute bit is set on all files. This is a result  of  the
          lack  of file permissions on Win32 and the Cygwin POSIX
          emulation  layer.   See  also  -uid  -gid,   -dir-mode,
          -file-mode and -new-dir-mode.

     -relaxed-filenames
          The option -relaxed-filenames allows ISO-9660 filenames
          to  include digits, upper case characters and all other
          7 bit ASCII characters (resp. anything except lowercase
          characters).
          This violates the ISO-9660 standard, but it happens  to
          work on many systems.  Use with caution.

     -root dir
          Moves all files and directories into dir in the  image.
          This is essentially the same as using -graft-points and
          adding dir in front of every pathspec, but is easier to
          use.

          dir may actually be several levels deep. It is  created
          with the same permissions as other graft points.

     -rrip110
          Create ISO-9660 file system images that follow the  old
          Rrip  Version-1.10  standard from 1993. This option may
          be needed if you know of systems that do not  implement
          the Rrip protocol correctly and like the file system to
          be read by such a system.  Currently no such system  is
          known.

          If a file system has been created  with  -rrip110,  the
          Rock  Ridge  attributes  do  not  include  inode number
          information.

     -rrip112
          Create ISO-9660 file system images that follow the  new
          Rrip  Version-1.12  standard  from  1994,  this  is the

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          default.

     -old-root dir
          This option is necessary when  writing  a  multisession
          image  and  the  previous  (or  even older) session was
          written with -root dir.  Using  a  directory  name  not
          found  in  the previous session causes mkisofs to abort
          with an error.

          Without this option, mkisofs would not be able to  find
          unmodified  files  and  would  be forced to write their
          data into the image once more.

          -root and -old-root are meant to be used together to do
          incremental  backups.   The  initial session would e.g.
          use:  mkisofs -root backup_1 dirs.  The next  incremen-
          tal   backup  with  mkisofs  -root  backup_2  -old-root
          backup_1 dirs.  would take another  snapshot  of  these
          directories.  The  first  snapshot  would  be  found in
          backup_1, the second one in backup_2, but only modified
          or  new  files  need to be written into the second ses-
          sion.

          Without these options, new files would be added and old
          ones   would  be  preserved.  But  old  ones  would  be
          overwritten if the file was  modified.  Recovering  the
          files by copying the whole directory back from CD would
          also restore files  that  were  deleted  intentionally.
          Accessing  several  older  versions  of a file requires
          support by the operating system to  choose  which  ses-
          sions are to be mounted.

     -short-rr-time
          Use the short ISO-9660 time format for  the  file  time
          stamps  used in Rock Ridge.  This time format allows to
          represent year 1990 .. year 2155 with a granularity  of
          one second.

     -s sector type

     -sectype sector type
          Set the sector type to be used for the output file with
          the  ISO-9660  filesystem.   The sector type may be one
          of:

          data This is the default. It results in standard CD-ROM
               data sectors with 2048 bytes per sector.

          xa1  This sets the sector type to CD-ROM XA mode 1 with
               2056  bytes  per  sector.  This sector type is the
               official sector type  for  multi-session  CDs,  it
               should  be  used  together  with the -XA option of

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Maintenance Procedures                                 MKISOFS(8)

               mkisofs.  It is required to write Kodak Photo  CDs
               and  Kodak  Picture CDs.  Use the -xa1 option from
               cdrecord to tell cdrecord to write CD-ROM XA  mode
               1 sectors.  Do not use for DVD or BluRay media.

          raw  This sets the sector type  to  raw  audio  sectors
               with  2352 bytes per sector.  This is reserved for
               future enhancements.  Do not use for DVD or BluRay
               media.

     -sort sort file
          Sort file locations on the media. Sorting is controlled
          by  a file that contains pairs of filenames and sorting
          offset weighting.  If the weighting is higher, the file
          will  be  located closer to the beginning of the media,
          if the weighting is lower, the  file  will  be  located
          closer  to the end of the media. There must be only one
          space or tabs character between the  filename  and  the
          weight  and the weight must be the last characters on a
          line. The filename is taken to include all the  charac-
          ters  up  to,  but  not including the last space or tab
          character on a line. This is to allow for space charac-
          ters  to  be  in,  or  at  the end of a filename.  This
          option does not sort the order of the file  names  that
          appear in the ISO-9660 directory. It sorts the order in
          which the file data is written to the CD image -  which
          may be useful in order to optimize the data layout on a
          CD. See README.sort for more details.

     -sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
          See -B option above.

     -sparc-label label
          Set the Sun disk label name for the Sun disk label that
          is created with the -sparc-boot option.

     -split-output
          Split the output image into several files  of  approxi-
          mately  1  GB.  This helps to create DVD sized ISO-9660
          images on operating systems without large file support.
          Cdrecord  will  concatenate  more  than one file into a
          single  track  if  writing   to   a   DVD.    To   make
          -split-output  work,  the  -o  filename  option must be
          specified. The resulting output images will  be  named:
          filename_00,filename_01,filename_02...

     -stream-media-size #
          Select streaming operation and set the media size to  #
          sectors.  This allows you to pipe the output of the tar
          program into mkisofs and to create a ISO-9660  filesys-
          tem  without  the  need  of an intermediate tar archive
          file. If this option has been specified, mkisofs  reads

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Maintenance Procedures                                 MKISOFS(8)

          from stdin and creates a file with the name STREAM.IMG.
          The maximum size of the file (with padding) is 200 sec-
          tors less than the specified media size. If -no-pad has
          been specified, the file size is 50 sectors  less  than
          the specified media size.  If the file is smaller, then
          mkisofs will write padding. This may take a while.

          The option -stream-media-size creates  simple  ISO-9660
          filesystems  only and may not used together with multi-
          session or hybrid filesystem options.

     -stream-file-name name
          Set the file name used with -stream-media-size #  to  a
          value  different  from  STREAM.IMG.   If this option is
          used, the filesystem is created as if -iso-level 4  has
          been specified.

     -sunx86-boot UFS-img,,,AUX1-img
          Specifies a comma separated list of  filesystem  images
          that  are  needed to make a bootable CD for Solaris x86
          systems.

          Note that partition 1 is used for  the  ISO-9660  image
          and  that partition 2 is the whole disk, so partition 1
          and 2 may not be used by external partition data.   The
          first  image  file is mapped to partition 0.  There may
          be empty fields in the comma separated list,  and  list
          entries  for partition 1 and 2 must be empty.  The max-
          imum number of supported partitions is 8 (although  the
          Solaris x86 partition table could support up to 16 par-
          titions), so it is impossible to specify  more  than  6
          partition  images.   This  option is required to make a
          bootable CD for Solaris x86 systems.

          If the -sunx86-boot  option  has  been  specified,  the
          first  sector  of the resulting image will contain a PC
          fdisk label with a Solaris type  0x82  fdisk  partition
          that  starts  at offset 512 and spans the whole CD.  In
          addition, for the Solaris type  0x82  fdisk  partition,
          there  is a SVr4 disk label at offset 1024 in the first
          sector of the CD.  This disk label  specifies  slice  0
          for  the first (usually UFS type) filesystem image that
          is used to boot the PC and slice  1  for  the  ISO-9660
          image.   Slice 2 spans the whole CD slice 3 ... slice 7
          may be used for additional filesystem images that  have
          been specified with this option.

          A Solaris x86 boot CD uses a 1024  byte  sized  primary
          boot that uses the El-Torito no-emulation boot mode and
          a secondary generic boot that is in CD  sectors  1..15.
          For this reason, both -b bootimage -no-emul-boot and -G
          genboot must be specified.

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     -sunx86-label label
          Set the SVr4 disk label name for the  SVr4  disk  label
          that is created with the -sunx86-boot option.

     -sysid ID
          Specifies the system ID.  There is space  on  the  disc
          for  32  characters of information.  This parameter can
          also be set in the file .mkisofsrc with SYSI=system_id.
          If  specified  in both places, the command line version
          is used.

     -T

     -translation-table
          Generate a file TRANS.TBL  in  each  directory  on  the
          CDROM, which can be used on non-Rock Ridge capable sys-
          tems to help establish the correct file  names.   There
          is  also information present in the file that indicates
          the major and minor numbers  for  block  and  character
          devices, and each symlink has the name of the link file
          given.

     -table-name TABLE_NAME
          Alternative translation table file  name  (see  above).
          Implies  the  -T  option.  If you are creating a multi-
          session image you must use the same name as in the pre-
          vious session.

     -ucs-level level
          Set Unicode conformance level in the  Joliet  SVD.  The
          default  level  is 3.  It may be set to 1..3 using this
          option.

     -UDF Include a UDF hybrid in the generated filesystem image.
          As  mkisofs always creates a ISO-9660 filesystem, it is
          not possible to create UDF only images. Note  that  UDF
          wastes  the  space from sector ~20 to sector 256 at the
          beginning of the disk in addition to the  space  needed
          for real UDF data structures.

     -udf Rationalized UDF with user and group set to 0 and  with
          simplified  permissions.  See -r option for more infor-
          mation.

     -udf-symlinks
          Support  symlinks  in  UDF  filesystems.  This  is  the
          default.

     -no-udf-symlinks
          Do not support symlinks in UDF filesystems.

     -uid uid

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          Overrides the uid read from the  source  files  to  the
          value  of  uid.   Specifying  this option automatically
          enables Rock Ridge extensions.

     -use-fileversion
          The option -use-fileversion allows mkisofs to use  file
          version  numbers from the filesystem.  If the option is
          not specified, mkisofs creates a version  number  of  1
          for  all files.  File versions are strings in the range
          ;1 to ;32767 This option is the default on VMS.

     -U

     -untranslated-filenames
          Allows "Untranslated" filenames,  completely  violating
          the  ISO-9660  standards described above. Forces on the
          -d, -l,  -N,  -allow-leading-dots,  -relaxed-filenames,
          -allow-lowercase, -allow-multidot and -no-iso-translate
          flags. It allows more than one  '.'  character  in  the
          filename,  as  well  as  mixed case filenames.  This is
          useful  on  HP-UX  system,  where  the  built-in   CDFS
          filesystem  does not recognize ANY extensions. Use with
          extreme caution.

     -no-iso-translate
          Do not translate the characters '#' and '~'  which  are
          invalid  for  ISO-9660 filenames.  These characters are
          though invalid often used by Microsoft systems.
          This violates the ISO-9660 standard, but it happens  to
          work on many systems.  Use with caution.

     -V volid
          Specifies the volume ID (volume name or  label)  to  be
          written  into  the  master block. There is space on the
          disc for 32 characters of information.  This  parameter
          can  also  be  set in the file .mkisofsrc with VOLI=id.
          If specified in both places, the command  line  version
          is  used.  Note that if you assign a volume ID, this is
          the name that will be used as the mount point  used  by
          the  Solaris volume management system and the name that
          is assigned to the disc on a Microsoft Win32  or  Apple
          Mac platform.

     -volset ID
          Specifies the volset ID.  There is space  on  the  disc
          for  128 characters of information.  The related Joliet
          entry is limited to 64 characters.  This parameter  can
          also be set in the file .mkisofsrc with VOLS=volset_id.
          If specified in both places, the command  line  version
          is used.

     -volset-size #

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          Sets the volume set size to #.  The volume set size  is
          the  number  of  CD's  that  are in a CD volume set.  A
          volume set is a collection of one or more  volumes,  on
          which a set of files is recorded.

          Volume Sets are not intended to be used to create a set
          numbered  CD's that are part of e.g. a Operation System
          installation set of CD's.  Volume Sets are rather  used
          to  record a big directory tree that would not fit on a
          single volume.  Each volume of a Volume Set contains  a
          description  of  all the directories and files that are
          recorded on the volumes where the sequence numbers  are
          less than, or equal to, the assigned Volume Set Size of
          the current volume.

          Mkisofs currently does not support a -volset-size  that
          is larger than 1.

          The  option  -volset-size  must  be  specified   before
          -volset-seqno on each command line.

     -volset-seqno #
          Sets the volume set sequence number to #.   The  volume
          set  sequence number is the index number of the current
          CD in a CD set.  The option -volset-size must be speci-
          fied before -volset-seqno on each command line.

     -v

     -verbose
          Verbose execution. If given twice on the command  line,
          extra debug information will be printed.

     -x path
          Exclude path from being written to CDROM.  path must be
          the  complete  pathname that results from concatenating
          the pathname given as command  line  argument  and  the
          path relative to this directory.  Multiple paths may be
          excluded.  Example:

          mkisofs -o cd -x /local/dir1 -x /local/dir2 /local

          NOTE: The -m and -x option description should  both  be
          updated,  they  are wrong.  Both now work identical and
          use filename globbing. A file is excluded if either the
          last component matches or the whole path matches.

     -XA  Generate  XA  iso-directory  attributes  with  original
          owner and mode information.  This option is required to
          create conforming multi session  CDs  as  used  by  the
          Kodak  Photo CD and the Kodak Picture CD.  A conforming
          XA CD uses CD-ROM XA mode 1 sectors,  see  the  -sector

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          xa2 option for more information.

     -xa  Generate XA iso-directory attributes with  rationalized
          owner  and  mode information.  User ID and group ID are
          set to 0.  See -XA for more information.

     -z   Generate  special  RRIP   records   for   transparently
          compressed files.  This is only of use and interest for
          hosts that support transparent decompression,  such  as
          Linux  2.4.14  or later.  You must specify the -R or -r
          options to enable RockRidge,  and  generate  compressed
          files   using   the  mkzftree  utility  before  running
          mkisofs.  Note that transparent compression is  a  non-
          standard Rock Ridge extension.  The resulting disks are
          only transparently readable if used on Linux.  On other
          operating  systems  you  will  need to call mkzftree by
          hand to decompress the files.


HFS OPTIONS

     -hfs Create an ISO-9660/HFS hybrid CD. This option should be
          used  in  conjunction  with the -map, -magic and/or the
          various double dash options given below.

     -no-hfs
          Do not create an ISO-9660/HFS  hybrid  CD  even  though
          other options may imply to do so.

     -apple
          Create an ISO-9660 CD with Apple's extensions.  Similar
          to the -hfs option, except that the Apple Extensions to
          ISO-9660 are added instead of creating  an  HFS  hybrid
          volume.  Former mkisofs versions did include Rock Ridge
          attributes by default if  -apple  was  specified.  This
          versions  of  mkisofs  does not do this anymore. If you
          like to have Rock Ridge attributes, you need to specify
          this separately.

     -map mapping_file
          Use the mapping_file to set the CREATOR and TYPE infor-
          mation  for a file based on the filename's extension. A
          filename is mapped only if it is not one  of  the  know
          Apple/Unix  file formats. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE sec-
          tion below.

     -magic magic_file
          The CREATOR and TYPE information  is  set  by  using  a
          file's  magic  number (usually the first few bytes of a
          file). The magic_file is only used if a file is not one
          of  the  known Apple/Unix file formats, or the filename
          extension has not been mapped using  the  -map  option.
          See   the  HFS  CREATOR/TYPE  section  below  for  more

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          details.

     -hfs-creator CREATOR
          Set the default CREATOR for all files. Must be  exactly
          4  characters.  See  the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below
          for more details.

     -hfs-type TYPE
          Set the default TYPE for all files. Must be  exactly  4
          characters.  See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below for
          more details.

     -probe
          Search  the  contents  of  files  for  all  the   known
          Apple/Unix  file  formats.   See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE
          FORMATS section below for  more  about  these  formats.
          However,  the  only  way  to  check  for  MacBinary and
          AppleSingle files is to open and read  them.  Therefore
          this  option may increase processing time. It is better
          to use one or more double dash options given  below  if
          the Apple/Unix formats in use are known.

     -no-desktop
          Do not create (empty) Desktop files.  New  HFS  Desktop
          files  will  be created when the CD is used on a Macin-
          tosh (and stored in the System  Folder).   By  default,
          empty Desktop files are added to the HFS volume.

     -mac-name
          Use the HFS filename as  the  starting  point  for  the
          ISO-9660, Joliet and Rock Ridge file names. See the HFS
          MACINTOSH FILE NAMES section below  for  more  informa-
          tion.

     -boot-hfs-file driver_file
          Installs the driver_file that may make the CD  bootable
          on  a Macintosh. See the HFS BOOT DRIVER section below.
          (Alpha).

     -part
          Generate an HFS partition table. By default, no  parti-
          tion table is generated, but some older Macintosh CDROM
          drivers need an HFS partition table on the CDROM to  be
          able to recognize a hybrid CDROM.

     -auto AutoStart_file
          Make the HFS CD use the QuickTime 2.0 Autostart feature
          to   launch  an  application  or  document.  The  given
          filename must be the name of a document or  application
          located  at  the top level of the CD. The filename must
          be less than 12 characters. (Alpha).

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     -cluster-size size
          Set the size in bytes  of  the  cluster  or  allocation
          units  of  PC  Exchange  files.  Implies the --exchange
          option. See the  HFS  MACINTOSH  FILE  FORMATS  section
          below.

     -hide-hfs glob
          Hide glob from the HFS volume. The  file  or  directory
          will  still  exist in the ISO-9660 and/or Joliet direc-
          tory.  glob is a  shell  wild-card-style  pattern  that
          must  match any part of the filename Multiple globs may
          be excluded.  Example:

          mkisofs -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs '*.o' -hide-hfs foobar

          would exclude  all  files  ending  in  ".o"  or  called
          "foobar"  from  the  HFS volume. Note that if you had a
          directory called "foobar" it too (and of course all its
          descendants) would be excluded.  The glob can also be a
          path name relative to the source directories  given  on
          the command line. Example:

          mkisofs -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs src/html src

          would exclude just the file or directory called  "html"
          from  the  "src" directory. Any other file or directory
          called "html" in the tree will not be excluded.  Should
          be used with the -hide and/or -hide-joliet options.  In
          order to match a directory name, make sure the pathname
          does   not   include  a  trailing  '/'  character.  See
          README.hide for more details.

     -hide-hfs-list file
          A file containing a list  of  globs  to  be  hidden  as
          above.

     -hfs-volid hfs_volid
          Volume name for the HFS partition.  This  is  the  name
          that  is  assigned  to  the  disc  on  a  Macintosh and
          replaces the volid used with the -V option

     -icon-position
          Use the icon position information, if it  exists,  from
          the Apple/Unix file.  The icons will appear in the same
          position as they would on a Macintosh  desktop.  Folder
          location  and  size  on  screen,  its scroll positions,
          folder View (view as Icons, Small Icons, etc.) are also
          preserved.   This  option  may become set by default in
          the future.  (Alpha).

     -root-info file
          Set the location, size  on  screen,  scroll  positions,

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          folder  View etc. for the root folder of an HFS volume.
          See README.rootinfo for more information.  (Alpha)

     -prep-boot FILE
          PReP  boot  image  file.  Up  to  4  are  allowed.  See
          README.prep_boot (Alpha)

     -chrp-t
          Create a CHRP boot in boot partition 1.  See -prep-boot
          for further information.

     -input-hfs-charset charset
          Input charset that defines the characters used  in  HFS
          file  names  when  used with the -mac-name option.  The
          default charset is cp10000  (Mac  Roman)  cp10000  (Mac
          Roman)  See CHARACTER SETS and HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES
          sections below for more details.

     -output-hfs-charset charset
          Output charset that defines the characters that will be
          used in the HFS file names. Defaults to the input char-
          set. See CHARACTER SETS section below for more details.

     -hfs-unlock
          By default, mkisofs will create an HFS volume  that  is
          locked.  This option leaves the volume unlocked so that
          other applications  (e.g.   hfsutils)  can  modify  the
          volume.  See the HFS PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS section below
          for warnings about using this option.

     -hfs-bless folder_name
          "Bless" the given directory (folder). This  is  usually
          the  System Folder and is used in creating HFS bootable
          CDs. The name of the directory must be the  whole  path
          name  as mkisofs sees it. e.g. if the given pathspec is
          ./cddata and  the  required  folder  is  called  System
          Folder,  then  the  whole path name is "./cddata/System
          Folder" (remember to use quotes if  the  name  contains
          spaces).

     -hfs-parms PARAMETERS
          Override certain parameters used to create the HFS file
          system.  Unlikely  to  be used in normal circumstances.
          See the libhfs_iso/hybrid.h source file for details.

     --cap
          Look for AUFS  CAP  Macintosh  files.  Search  for  CAP
          Apple/Unix  file  formats only. Searching for the other
          possible Apple/Unix file formats  is  disabled,  unless
          other double dash options are given.

     --netatalk

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Maintenance Procedures                                 MKISOFS(8)

          Look for NETATALK Macintosh files

     --double
          Look for AppleDouble Macintosh files

     --ethershare
          Look for Helios EtherShare Macintosh files

     --ushare
          Look for IPT UShare Macintosh files

     --exchange
          Look for PC Exchange Macintosh files

     --sgi
          Look for SGI Macintosh files

     --xinet
          Look for XINET Macintosh files

     --macbin
          Look for MacBinary Macintosh files

     --single
          Look for AppleSingle Macintosh files

     --dave
          Look for Thursby Software Systems DAVE Macintosh files

     --sfm
          Look for Microsoft's Services for Macintosh  files  (NT
          only) (Alpha)

     --osx-double
          Look for MacOS X AppleDouble Macintosh files

     --osx-hfs
          Look for MacOS X HFS Macintosh files


CHARACTER SETS

     mkisofs processes file names in a  POSIX  compliant  way  as
     strings  of  8-bit characters.  To represent all codings for
     all languages, 8-bit characters are not sufficient.  Unicode
     or  ISO-10646 define character codings that need at least 21
     bits  to  represent  all  known  languages.  They   may   be
     represented  with  UTF-32,  UTF-16  or UTF-8 coding.  UTF-32
     uses a plain 32-bit coding but seems to be  uncommon.  UCS-2
     is  used by Microsoft with Win32.  This coding is similar to
     UTF-16 with the disadvantage that it only supports a 16  bit
     subset  (except  when  surrogates are used) of all codes and
     that 16-bit characters are  not  compliant  with  the  POSIX

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Maintenance Procedures                                 MKISOFS(8)

     filesystem interface.

     Modern UNIX operating  systems  may  use  UTF-8  coding  for
     filenames.  This  coding  allows to use the complete Unicode
     code set.  Each 32-bit character is represented  by  one  or
     more  8-bit  characters.   If  a  character is coded in ISO-
     8859-1 (used in Central Europe and North  America)  it  maps
     1:1  to  a  UTF-32  or UTF-16 coded Unicode character.  If a
     character is coded in 7-Bit ASCII (used  in  USA  and  other
     countries  with limited character set) it maps 1:1 to a UTF-
     32, UTF-16 or  UTF-8  coded  Unicode  character.   Character
     codes  that  cannot be represented as a single byte in UTF-8
     (typically if the value is > 0x7F) use escape sequences that
     map to more than one 8-bit character.

     If all operating systems would  use  UTF-8  coding,  mkisofs
     would  not  need to recode characters in file names.  Unfor-
     tunately, Apple  uses  completely  nonstandard  codings  and
     Microsoft  uses a Unicode coding that is not compatible with
     the POSIX filename interface.

     For all non UTF-8 coded operating systems, the actual  char-
     acter  that  each  byte represents, depends on the character
     set or codepage (which is the name used by  Microsoft)  used
     by  the  local operating system in use - the characters in a
     character set will reflect the region  or  natural  language
     used by the user.

     Usually character codes 0x00-0x1f  are  control  characters,
     codes  0x20-0x7f are the 7 bit ASCII characters and (on PC's
     and Mac's) 0x80-0xff are used for other characters.   Unfor-
     tunately  even  this  does  not  follow  ISO  standards that
     reserve the range 0x80-0x9f for control characters and  only
     allow 0xa0-0xff for other characters.

     As there is a lot more than 256 characters/symbols  in  use,
     only  a  small  subset  are  represented in a character set.
     Therefore the same character code may represent a  different
     character  in  different character sets. So a file name gen-
     erated, say in central Europe,  may  not  display  the  same
     character when viewed on a machine in, say eastern Europe.

     To make matters more complicated, different  operating  sys-
     tems   use  different  character  sets  for  the  region  or
     language. For example the character code for "small  e  with
     acute  accent" may be character code 0x82 on a PC, code 0x8e
     on a Macintosh and code 0xe9 on a UNIX system.   Note  while
     the  codings  used  on  a PC or Mac are nonstandard, Unicode
     codes this character as 0x00000000e9 which is basically  the
     same value as the value used by most UNIX systems.

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     As long as not all operating systems and  applications  will
     use the Unicode character set as the basis for file names in
     a unique way, it may be necessary to specify which character
     set  your file names use in and which character set the file
     names should appear on the CD.

     There are four options to specify  the  character  sets  you
     want to use:

     -input-charset
          Defines the local character set you are using  on  your
          host  machine.  Any character set conversions that take
          place will use this character set as the staring point.
          The default input character sets are cp437 on DOS based
          systems and iso8859-1 on all other systems.

          If the -J option is given, then the Unicode equivalents
          of  the  input character set will be used in the Joliet
          directory. Using the -jcharset option is  the  same  as
          using the -input-charset and -J options.

     -output-charset
          Defines the character set that will be  used  with  for
          the  Rock  Ridge names on the CD. Defaults to the input
          character set. Only likely to be useful if  used  on  a
          non-Unix  platform.  e.g.  using mkisofs on a Microsoft
          Win32 machine to create Rock  Ridge  CDs.  If  you  are
          using  mkisofs on a Unix machine, it is likely that the
          output character set will be  the  same  as  the  input
          character set.

     -input-hfs-charset
          Defines the HFS character set used for HFS  file  names
          decoded  from  any  of the various Apple/Unix file for-
          mats. Only useful when used with -mac-name option.  See
          the  HFS  MACINTOSH  FILE  NAMES  for more information.
          Defaults to cp10000 (Mac Roman).

     -output-hfs-charset
          Defines the HFS character set used to create  HFS  file
          names  from  the  input  character  set in use. In most
          cases this will be from the character  set  given  with
          the  -input-charset  option.  Defaults to the input HFS
          character set.

     The default character set is built into mkisofs.   A  number
     of further character sets are read in from the filesystem by
     mkisofs from a directory relatively to the install path.  To
     get a listing, use mkisofs -input-charset help.

     Additional character sets from iconv(1) may be used on  sys-
     tems, that support iconv(1).  In this case, call iconv -l to

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     get a list of valid character sets from this coding  method.
     To force an iconv(1) based coding, use iconv:name instead of
     name for the character set.

     If using non iconv(1) based character sets, additional char-
     acter  sets  can  be read from file for any of the character
     set options by giving a filename  as  the  argument  to  the
     options.  A  given  character  set  will be read from a file
     whenever the supplied name contains a '/'.

     The format of the character set files is  the  same  as  the
     mapping            files            available           from
     http://www.unicode.org/Public/MAPPINGS The format  of  these
     files is:

          Column #1 is the input byte code (in hex as 0xXX)
          Column #2 is the Unicode (in hex as 0xXXXX)
          Rest of the line is ignored.

     Any blank line, line without two (or more)  columns  in  the
     above  format or comments lines (starting with the # charac-
     ter) are ignored without any  warnings.  Any  missing  input
     code is mapped to Unicode character 0x0000.

     Note that there is no support for 16 bit UNICODE (UTF-16) or
     32  bit  UNICODE  (UTF-32) coding because this coding is not
     POSIX compliant. There should be support for  UTF-8  UNICODE
     coding  which is compatible to POSIX filenames and supported
     by moder UNIX implementations such as Solaris.

     A 1:1 character set mapping can be defined by using the key-
     word  default  as  the  argument to any of the character set
     options. This is the behaviour of older (v1.12) versions  of
     mkisofs.

     The ISO-9660 file names generated from the  input  filenames
     are not converted from the input character set. The ISO-9660
     character set is a very limited subset of the ASCII  charac-
     ters, so any conversion would be pointless.

     Any character that mkisofs can not convert will be  replaced
     with a '_' character.


HFS CREATOR/TYPE

     A Macintosh file has two properties associated with it which
     define  which  application created the file, the CREATOR and
     what data the file contains, the TYPE.  Both are (exactly) 4
     letter  strings.  Usually  this  allows  a Macintosh user to
     double-click on a file and launch  the  correct  application
     etc.  The CREATOR and TYPE of a particular file can be found
     by using something like ResEdit (or similar) on a Macintosh.

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     The CREATOR and TYPE information is stored in all the  vari-
     ous  Apple/Unix encoded files.  For other files it is possi-
     ble to base the CREATOR and TYPE on the filename's extension
     using  a  mapping  file  (the  -map option) and/or using the
     magic number (usually a signature in the first few bytes) of
     a file (the -magic option). If both these options are given,
     then their order on the command line is  important.  If  the
     -map  option is given first, then a filename extension match
     is attempted before a magic number match.  However,  if  the
     -magic  option  is given first, then a magic number match is
     attempted before a filename extension match.

     If a mapping or magic file is not used, or no match is found
     then  the default CREATOR and TYPE for all regular files can
     be set by using entries in the .mkisofsrc file or using  the
     -hfs-creator and/or -hfs-type options, otherwise the default
     CREATOR and TYPE are 'unix' and 'TEXT'.

     The format of the mapping file is the same afpfile format as
     used by aufs.  This file has five columns for the extension,
     file translation, CREATOR, TYPE and Comment.  Lines starting
     with the '#' character are comment lines and are ignored. An
     example file would be like:

     # Example filename mapping file
     #
     # EXTN   XLate   CREATOR   TYPE     Comment
     .tif     Raw     '8BIM'    'TIFF'   "Photoshop TIFF image"
     .hqx     Ascii   'BnHq'    'TEXT'   "BinHex file"
     .doc     Raw     'MSWD'    'WDBN'   "Word file"
     .mov     Raw     'TVOD'    'MooV'   "QuickTime Movie"
     *        Ascii   'ttxt'    'TEXT'   "Text file"

     Where:

          The first column EXTN defines the Unix filename  exten-
          sion to be mapped. The default mapping for any filename
          extension that doesn't match is defined  with  the  "*"
          character.

          The Xlate column defines the type of  text  translation
          between  the  Unix  and Macintosh file it is ignored by
          mkisofs, but is kept to  be  compatible  with  aufs(1).
          Although mkisofs does not alter the contents of a file,
          if a binary file has its TYPE set as 'TEXT', it may  be
          read  incorrectly  on  a  Macintosh. Therefore a better
          choice for the default TYPE may be '????'

          The CREATOR and TYPE keywords must be 4 characters long
          and enclosed in single quotes.

          The comment field is enclosed in double quotes - it  is

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          ignored  by  mkisofs, but is kept to be compatible with
          aufs.

     The format of the magic file  is  almost  identical  to  the
     magic(4)  file  used by the Linux file(1) command - the rou-
     tines for reading and decoding the magic file are  based  on
     the Linux file(1) command.

     This file has  four  tab  separated  columns  for  the  byte
     offset, type, test and message.  Lines starting with the '#'
     character are comment lines and are ignored. An example file
     would be like:

     # Example magic file
     #
     # off   type      test       message
     0       string    GIF8       8BIM GIFf  GIF image
     0       beshort   0xffd8     8BIM JPEG  image data
     0       string    SIT!       SIT! SIT!  StuffIt Archive
     0       string    \037\235   LZIV ZIVU  standard unix compress
     0       string    \037\213   GNUz ZIVU  gzip compressed data
     0       string    %!         ASPS TEXT  Postscript
     0       string    \004%!     ASPS TEXT  PC Postscript with a ^D to start
     4       string    moov       txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (moov)
     4       string    mdat       txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (mdat)

     The format of the file is  described  in  the  magic(4)  man
     page. The only difference here is that for each entry in the
     magic file, the message for the initial  offset  must  be  4
     characters  for the CREATOR followed by 4 characters for the
     TYPE - white space is optional between them. Any other char-
     acters on this line are ignored.  Continuation lines (start-
     ing with a '>') are  also  ignored  i.e.  only  the  initial
     offset lines are used.

     Using the -magic option may significantly increase  process-
     ing  time  as  each  file has to opened and read to find its
     magic number.

     In summary, for all files, the default CREATOR is 'unix' and
     the  default  TYPE is 'TEXT'.  These can be changed by using
     entries in the .mkisofsrc file or by using the  -hfs-creator
     and/or -hfs-type options.

     If the a file is in one of the known Apple/Unix formats (and
     the format has been selected), then the CREATOR and TYPE are
     taken from the values stored in the Apple/Unix file.

     Other files can have their CREATOR and TYPE set  from  their
     file name extension (the -map option), or their magic number
     (the -magic option). If the default match  is  used  in  the
     mapping file, then these values override the default CREATOR

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     and TYPE.

     A   full   CREATOR/TYPE   database   can   be    found    at
     http://www.angelfire.com/il/szekely/index.html


HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS

     Macintosh files have two parts called the Data and  Resource
     fork.  Either  may  be  empty. Unix (and many other OSs) can
     only cope with files having one part (or fork).  To  add  to
     this, Macintosh files have a number of attributes associated
     with them - probably the most important  are  the  TYPE  and
     CREATOR.  Again Unix has no concept of these types of attri-
     butes.

     e.g. a Macintosh file may be a JPEG image where the image is
     stored  in  the  Data fork and a desktop thumbnail stored in
     the Resource fork. It is usually the information in the data
     fork that is useful across platforms.

     Therefore to store a Macintosh file on a Unix filesystem,  a
     way has to be found to cope with the two forks and the extra
     attributes (which are  referred  to  as  the  finder  info).
     Unfortunately,  it  seems  that  every software package that
     stores Macintosh files on Unix has chosen a completely  dif-
     ferent storage method.

     The Apple/Unix formats  that  mkisofs  (partially)  supports
     are:

     CAP AUFS format
          Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork in  subdirec-
          tory  .resource with same filename as data fork. Finder
          info in .finderinfo subdirectory with same filename.

     AppleDouble/Netatalk
          Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork stored  in  a
          file with same name prefixed with "%". Finder info also
          stored in same "%" file. Netatalk uses the same format,
          but the resource fork/finderinfo stored in subdirectory
          .AppleDouble with same name as data fork.

     AppleSingle
          Data structures similar to above, except both forks and
          finder info are stored in one file.

     Helios EtherShare
          Data fork stored in a file. Resource  fork  and  finder
          info  together in subdirectory .rsrc with same filename
          as data fork.

     IPT UShare

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Maintenance Procedures                                 MKISOFS(8)

          Very similar to the EtherShare format, but  the  finder
          info is stored slightly differently.

     MacBinary
          Both forks and finder info stored in one file.

     Apple PC Exchange
          Used by Macintoshes to store Apple files on  DOS  (FAT)
          disks.   Data  fork  stored in a file. Resource fork in
          subdirectory  resource.frk  (or  RESOURCE.FRK).  Finder
          info  as one record in file finder.dat (or FINDER.DAT).
          Separate finder.dat for each data fork directory.

          Note: mkisofs needs to know the native FAT cluster size
          of  the disk that the PC Exchange files are on (or have
          been  copied  from).  This  size  is   given   by   the
          -cluster-size  option.   The cluster or allocation size
          can be found by using the DOS utility CHKDSK.

          May not work with PC  Exchange  v2.2  or  higher  files
          (available  with  MacOS  8.1).  DOS media containing PC
          Exchange files should be mounted  as  type  msdos  (not
          vfat) when using Linux.

     SGI/XINET
          Used by SGI machines when they mount  HFS  disks.  Data
          fork  stored  in  a file. Resource fork in subdirectory
          .HSResource with same name. Finder info as  one  record
          in  file  .HSancillary.  Separate .HSancillary for each
          data fork directory.

     Thursby Software Systems DAVE
          Allows Macintoshes to store Apple files on SMB servers.
          Data  fork stored in a file. Resource fork in subdirec-
          tory resource.frk. Uses the AppleDouble format to store
          resource fork.

     Services for Macintosh
          Format of files stored by NT Servers on  NTFS  filesys-
          tems.  Data fork is stored as "filename". Resource fork
          stored as a NTFS stream called "filename:AFP_Resource".
          The  finder  info  is  stored  as  a NTFS stream called
          "filename:Afp_AfpInfo".  These  streams  are   normally
          invisible to the user.

          Warning: mkisofs only partially supports the  SFM  for-
          mat.  If  an HFS file or folder stored on the NT server
          contains an illegal NT character in its name,  then  NT
          converts  these characters to Private Use Unicode char-
          acters. The characters are: " * / < > ?  | also a space
          or period if it is the last character of the file name,
          character codes 0x01 to 0x1f (control  characters)  and

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Maintenance Procedures                                 MKISOFS(8)

          Apple' apple logo.

          Unfortunately, these private Unicode characters are not
          readable  by  the  mkisofs NT executable. Therefore any
          file or directory name containing these characters will
          be  ignored - including the contents of any such direc-
          tory.

     MacOS X AppleDouble
          When HFS/HFS+ files are copied or saved by MacOS  X  on
          to  a  non-HFS  file  system  (e.g. UFS, NFS etc.), the
          files are stored  in  AppleDouble  format.   Data  fork
          stored  in  a file. Resource fork stored in a file with
          same name prefixed with "._". Finder info  also  stored
          in same "._" file.

     MacOS X HFS (Alpha)
          Not really an Apple/Unix encoding, but actual  HFS/HFS+
          files  on a MacOS X system. Data fork stored in a file.
          Resource fork stored in a pseudo  file  with  the  same
          name  with  the  suffix '/rsrc'. The finderinfo is only
          available via a MacOS X library call.

          Notes: (also see README.macosx)

          Only works when used on MacOS X.

          If a file is found with a zero length resource fork and
          empty  finderinfo,  it  is  assumed  not  to  have  any
          Apple/Unix encoding - therefore a TYPE and CREATOR  can
          be set using other methods.

     mkisofs will attempt to set the CREATOR, TYPE, date and pos-
     sibly  other flags from the finder info. Additionally, if it
     exists, the Macintosh filename is set from the finder  info,
     otherwise the Macintosh name is based on the Unix filename -
     see the HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES section below.

     When using the -apple  option,  the  TYPE  and  CREATOR  are
     stored  in the optional System Use or SUSP field in the ISO-
     9660 Directory Record - in much the same  way  as  the  Rock
     Ridge  attributes  are. In fact to make life easy, the Apple
     extensions are added at the beginning of the  existing  Rock
     Ridge  attributes  (i.e. to get the Apple extensions you get
     the Rock Ridge extensions as well).

     The Apple extensions require the resource fork to be  stored
     as an ISO-9660 associated file. This is just like any normal
     file stored in the ISO-9660 filesystem except that the asso-
     ciated  file  flag  is  set in the Directory Record (bit 2).
     This file has the same name as the data fork (the file  seen
     by   non-Apple  machines).  Associated  files  are  normally

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Maintenance Procedures                                 MKISOFS(8)

     ignored by other OSs

     When using the -hfs option, the TYPE and CREATOR plus  other
     finder  info,  are  stored  in a separate HFS directory, not
     visible on the ISO-9660 volume. The HFS directory references
     the same data and resource fork files described above.

     In most cases, it is better to use the -hfs  option  instead
     of  the  -apple  option,  as  the latter imposes the limited
     ISO-9660 characters allowed in filenames. However, the Apple
     extensions  do  give the advantage that the files are packed
     on the disk more efficiently and it may be possible  to  fit
     more  files  on  a CD - important when the total size of the
     source files is approaching 650MB.


HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES

     Where possible, the HFS filename  that  is  stored  with  an
     Apple/Unix file is used for the HFS part of the CD. However,
     not all the Apple/Unix encodings store the HFS filename with
     the  finderinfo. In these cases, the Unix filename is used -
     with escaped special characters. Special characters  include
     '/' and characters with codes over 127.

     Aufs escapes these characters by using ":" followed  by  the
     character  code  as  two hex digits. Netatalk and EtherShare
     have a similar scheme, but uses "%" instead of a ":".

     If mkisofs can't find an HFS filename, then it uses the Unix
     name,  with any %xx or :xx characters (xx == two hex digits)
     converted to a single character code. If "xx"  are  not  hex
     digits  ([0-9a-fA-F]),  then  they are left alone - although
     any remaining ":" is converted to "%" as colon  is  the  HFS
     directory separator. Care must be taken, as an ordinary Unix
     file with %xx or :xx will also be converted. e.g.

     This:2fFile   converted to This/File

     This:File     converted to This%File

     This:t7File   converted to This%t7File

     Although HFS filenames appear to  support  upper  and  lower
     case  letters,  the filesystem is case insensitive. i.e. the
     filenames "aBc" and "AbC" are the same. If a file  is  found
     in  a  directory  with  the same HFS name, then mkisofs will
     attempt, where possible, to make a unique name by adding '_'
     characters to one of the filenames.

     If an HFS filename exists for a file, then mkisofs  can  use
     this name as the starting point for the ISO-9660, Joliet and
     Rock Ridge filenames using the -mac-name option. Normal Unix

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     files  without  an  HFS name will still use their Unix name.
     e.g.

     If  a  MacBinary  (or  PC  Exchange)  file  is   stored   as
     someimage.gif.bin on the Unix filesystem, but contains a HFS
     file called someimage.gif, then this is the name that  would
     appear  on  the HFS part of the CD. However, as mkisofs uses
     the Unix name as the starting point  for  the  other  names,
     then   the   ISO-9660   name   generated  will  probably  be
     SOMEIMAG.BIN   and   the   Joliet/Rock   Ridge   would    be
     someimage.gif.bin.   Although the actual data (in this case)
     is a GIF image. This option will use the HFS filename as the
     starting  point  and  the  ISO-9660  name  will  probably be
     SOMEIMAG.GIF   and   the   Joliet/Rock   Ridge   would    be
     someimage.gif.

     Using the -mac-name option will not currently work with  the
     -T  option  -  the  Unix  name will be used in the TRANS.TBL
     file, not the Macintosh name.

     The character set used to convert any HFS  file  name  to  a
     Joliet/Rock Ridge file name defaults to cp10000 (Mac Roman).
     The  character  set  used  can  be   specified   using   the
     -input-hfs-charset option. Other built in HFS character sets
     are:  cp10006  (MacGreek),  cp10007  (MacCyrillic),  cp10029
     (MacLatin2),  cp10079  (MacIcelandic)  and cp10081 (MacTurk-
     ish).

     Note: the character codes used by HFS file names taken  from
     the various Apple/Unix formats will not be converted as they
     are assumed to be in the correct Apple character  set.  Only
     the  Joliet/Rock Ridge names derived from the HFS file names
     will be converted.

     The existing mkisofs code will filter out any illegal  char-
     acters for the ISO-9660 and Joliet filenames, but as mkisofs
     expects to be dealing directly with Unix  names,  it  leaves
     the  Rock  Ridge  names  as  is.   But as '/' is a legal HFS
     filename character, the -mac-name option converts '/'  to  a
     '_' in Rock Ridge filenames.

     If the Apple extensions are used,  then  only  the  ISO-9660
     filenames  will  appear  on  the  Macintosh. However, as the
     Macintosh ISO-9660 drivers can use Level 2  filenames,  then
     you can use options like -allow-multidot without problems on
     a Macintosh - still take care over the  names,  for  example
     this.file.name will be converted to THIS.FILE i.e. only have
     one '.', also filename abcdefgh will be seen as ABCDEFGH but
     abcdefghi  will be seen as ABCDEFGHI. i.e. with a '.' at the
     end  -  don't  know  if  this  is  a  Macintosh  problem  or
     mkisofs/mkhybrid  problem.  All  filenames  will be in upper
     case when viewed  on  a  Macintosh.  Of  course,  DOS/Win3.X

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     machines will not be able to see Level 2 filenames...


HFS CUSTOM VOLUME/FOLDER ICONS

     To give a HFS CD a custom icon,  make  sure  the  root  (top
     level)  folder  includes  a  standard  Macintosh volume icon
     file. To give a volume a custom icon on a Macintosh, an icon
     has  to  be  pasted over the volume's icon in the "Get Info"
     box of the volume. This creates  an  invisible  file  called
     'Icon\r'  ('\r'  is  the 'carriage return' character) in the
     root folder.

     A custom folder icon is very similar  -  an  invisible  file
     called 'Icon\r' exits in the folder itself.

     Probably the easiest  way  to  create  a  custom  icon  that
     mkisofs  can  use, is to format a blank HFS floppy disk on a
     Mac, paste an icon to its "Get Info"  box.  If  using  Linux
     with  the HFS module installed, mount the floppy using some-
     thing like:

                mount -t hfs /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy

     The floppy will be mounted as a CAP file system by  default.
     Then run mkisofs using something like:

                mkisofs --cap -o output source_dir /mnt/floppy

     If you are not using Linux, then you can use the hfsutils to
     copy  the icon file from the floppy. However, care has to be
     taken, as the icon file contains a control character. e.g.

                hmount /dev/fd0
                hdir -a
                hcopy -m Icon^V^M icon_dir/icon

     Where '^V^M' is control-V followed by  control-M.  Then  run
     mkisofs by using something like:

                mkisofs --macbin -o output source_dir icon_dir

     The procedure for creating/using custom folder icons is very
     similar  -  paste  an  icon  to  folder's "Get Info" box and
     transfer the resulting 'Icon\r' file to the relevant  direc-
     tory in the mkisofs source tree.

     You may want to hide the icon files from  the  ISO-9660  and
     Joliet trees.

     To give a custom icon to a Joliet CD,  follow  the  instruc-
     tions                        found                       at:
     http://www.fadden.com/cdrfaq/faq03.html#[3-21]

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HFS BOOT DRIVER

     It may be possible to make  the  hybrid  CD  bootable  on  a
     Macintosh.

     A bootable HFS CD requires an Apple CD-ROM  (or  compatible)
     driver,  a  bootable HFS partition and the necessary System,
     Finder, etc. files.

     A driver can be obtained from any other  Macintosh  bootable
     CD-ROM using the apple_driver utility. This file can then be
     used with the -boot-hfs-file option.

     The HFS partition (i.e. the hybrid disk in  our  case)  must
     contain  a suitable System Folder, again from another CD-ROM
     or disk.

     For a partition to be bootable, it must have its boot  block
     set.  The  boot block is in the first two blocks of a parti-
     tion. For a non-bootable partition the boot block is full of
     zeros.  Normally,  when a System file is copied to partition
     on a Macintosh disk, the boot block is filled with a  number
     of  required  settings - unfortunately I don't know the full
     spec for the boot block, so I'm guessing that the  following
     will work OK.

     Therefore, the utility apple_driver also extracts  the  boot
     block  from  the  first  HFS partition it finds on the given
     CD-ROM and this is used for the  HFS  partition  created  by
     mkisofs.

     PLEASE NOTE
          By using a driver from an Apple CD  and  copying  Apple
          software  to  your  CD, you become liable to obey Apple
          Computer, Inc. Software License Agreements.


EL TORITO BOOT INFORMATION TABLE

     When the -boot-info-table  option  is  given,  mkisofs  will
     modify the boot file specified by the -b option by inserting
     a 56-byte "boot information table" at offset 8 in the  file.
     This  modification is done in the source filesystem, so make
     sure you use a copy if this file is  not  easily  recreated!
     This file contains pointers which may not be easily or reli-
     ably obtained at boot time.

     The format of this table is as follows; all integers are  in
     section 7.3.1 ("little endian") format.

       Offset    Name           Size      Meaning
        8        bi_pvd         4 bytes   LBA of primary volume descriptor
       12        bi_file        4 bytes   LBA of boot file
       16        bi_length      4 bytes   Boot file length in bytes
       20        bi_csum        4 bytes   32-bit checksum

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       24        bi_reserved    40 bytes  Reserved

     The 32-bit checksum is the sum of all the  32-bit  words  in
     the  boot file starting at byte offset 64.  All linear block
     addresses (LBAs) are given  in  CD  sectors  (normally  2048
     bytes).


CONFIGURATION

     mkisofs looks for the .mkisofsrc file, first in the  current
     working  directory,  then  in the user's home directory, and
     then in the directory in which the mkisofs binary is stored.
     This  file  is  assumed  to contain a series of lines of the
     form TAG=value , and in this way  you  can  specify  certain
     options.   The  case  of  the  tag is not significant.  Some
     fields in the volume header are not settable on the  command
     line,  but  can  be altered through this facility.  Comments
     may be placed in this file, using lines which start  with  a
     hash (#) character.

     APPI The application identifier should describe the applica-
          tion  that  will be on the disc.  There is space on the
          disc for 128 characters of  information.   The  related
          Joliet entry is limited to 64 characters.  May be over-
          ridden using the -A command line option.

     COPY The copyright information, often the name of a file  on
          the  disc  containing  the  copyright notice.  There is
          space in the disc for  37  characters  of  information.
          The  related  Joliet entry is limited to 18 characters.
          May be overridden using  the  -copyright  command  line
          option.

     ABST The abstract information, often the name of a  file  on
          the disc containing an abstract.  There is space in the
          disc for 37 characters  of  information.   The  related
          Joliet entry is limited to 18 characters.  May be over-
          ridden using the -abstract command line option.

     BIBL The bibliographic information, often the name of a file
          on  the disc containing a bibliography.  There is space
          in the disc for  37  characters  of  information.   The
          related  Joliet entry is limited to 18 characters.  May
          be overridden using the -bilio command line option.

     PREP This should describe the preparer of the CDROM, usually
          with  a  mailing  address  and  phone number.  There is
          space on the disc for 128  characters  of  information.
          The  related  Joliet entry is limited to 64 characters.
          May be overridden using the -p command line option.

     PUBL This should describe the publisher of the  CDROM,  usu-
          ally with a mailing address and phone number.  There is

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Maintenance Procedures                                 MKISOFS(8)

          space on the disc for 128  characters  of  information.
          The  related  Joliet entry is limited to 64 characters.
          May be overridden using  the  -publisher  command  line
          option.

     SYSI The System Identifier.  There is space on the disc  for
          32  characters of information.  May be overridden using
          the -sysid command line option.

     VOLI The Volume Identifier.  There is space on the disc  for
          32  characters of information.  May be overridden using
          the -V command line option.

     VOLS The Volume Set Name.  There is space on  the  disc  for
          128  characters  of  information.   The  related Joliet
          entry is limited to 64 characters.  May  be  overridden
          using the -volset command line option.

     HFS_TYPE
          The default TYPE for Macintosh files. Must be exactly 4
          characters.  May be overridden using the -hfs-type com-
          mand line option.

     HFS_CREATOR
          The  default  CREATOR  for  Macintosh  files.  Must  be
          exactly  4  characters.   May  be  overridden using the
          -hfs-creator command line option.

     mkisofs can also be configured at compile time with defaults
     for many of these fields.  See the file defaults.h.


EXAMPLES

     To create a vanilla ISO-9660 filesystem image  in  the  file
     cd.iso,  where  the  directory  cd_dir  will become the root
     directory of the CD ISO image, call:

     % mkisofs -o cd.iso cd_dir

     To create a CD with Rock  Ridge  extensions  of  the  source
     directory cd_dir:

     % mkisofs -o cd.iso -R cd_dir

     To create a CD with Rock  Ridge  extensions  of  the  source
     directory  cd_dir where all files have at least read permis-
     sion and all files are owned by root, call:

     % mkisofs -o cd.iso -r cd_dir

     To write a tar archive directly to a CD that will later con-
     tain a simple ISO-9660 filesystem with the tar archive call:

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Maintenance Procedures                                 MKISOFS(8)

     % star -c . | mkisofs -stream-media-size 333000 | \
             cdrecord dev=b,t,l -dao tsize=333000s -

     To create a HFS hybrid CD with the  Joliet  and  Rock  Ridge
     extensions of the source directory cd_dir:

     % mkisofs -o cd.iso -R -J -hfs cd_dir

     To create a HFS hybrid CD from the source  directory  cd_dir
     that contains Netatalk Apple/Unix files:

     % mkisofs -o cd.iso --netatalk cd_dir

     To create a HFS hybrid CD from the source directory  cd_dir,
     giving  all  files  CREATOR  and  TYPES  based on just their
     filename extensions listed in the file "mapping".:

     % mkisofs -o cd.iso -map mapping cd_dir

     To create a CD with the 'Apple Extensions to ISO-9660', from
     the source directories cd_dir and another_dir.  Files in all
     the known Apple/Unix format are decoded and any other  files
     are given CREATOR and TYPE based on their magic number given
     in the file "magic":

     % mkisofs -o cd.iso -apple -magic magic -probe \
             cd_dir another_dir

     The following example puts different files on  the  CD  that
     all  have  the name README, but have different contents when
     seen as a ISO-9660/RockRidge, Joliet or HFS CD.

     Current directory contains:

     % ls -F
     README.hfs     README.joliet  README.unix    cd_dir/

     The following command puts the  contents  of  the  directory
     cd_dir  on  the  CD  along with the three README files - but
     only one will be seen from each of the three filesystems:

     % mkisofs -o cd.iso -hfs -J -r -graft-points \
             -hide README.hfs -hide README.joliet \
             -hide-joliet README.hfs -hide-joliet README.unix \
             -hide-hfs README.joliet -hide-hfs README.unix \
             README=README.hfs README=README.joliet \
             README=README.unix cd_dir

     i.e. the file README.hfs will be seen as README on  the  HFS
     CD  and the other two README files will be hidden. Similarly
     for the Joliet and ISO-9660/RockRidge CD.

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     There are probably all sorts  of  strange  results  possible
     with combinations of the hide options ...

     To create a DVD-Audio  of  the  DVD-Audio  compliant  source
     directory DVD:

     % mkisofs -o dvda.iso -dvd-audio DVD


AUTHOR

     Eric Youngdale <ericy@gnu.ai.mit.edu> or  <eric@andante.org>
     wrote  the  first  versions  (1993  ... 1998) of the mkisofs
     utility.  The copyright for  old  versions  of  the  mkisofs
     utility is held by Yggdrasil Computing, Incorporated.  Joerg
     Schilling wrote the SCSI transport library and  its  adapta-
     tion  layer  to mkisofs and newer parts (starting from 1997)
     of the utility.  Joerg Schilling is the  primary  maintainer
     since 1999, this makes mkisofs Copyright (C) 1997-2014 Joerg
     Schilling.

     HFS hybrid code Copyright (C) James Pearson 1997 ... 2001.

     libhfs code Copyright (C) 1996, 1997 Robert Leslie.

     libfile code Copyright (C) Ian F. Darwin 1986,  1987,  1989,
     1990, 1991, 1992, 1994, 1995.


NOTES

     Mkisofs may safely be  installed  suid  root.  This  may  be
     needed  to  allow  mkisofs to read the previous session when
     creating a multi session image.

     mkisofs is not based on the standard mk*fs tools  for  unix,
     because  we  must  generate  a  complete copy of an existing
     filesystem on a disk in the  ISO-9660 filesystem.  The  name
     mkisofs  is  probably a bit of a misnomer, since it not only
     creates the filesystem, but it also populates  it  as  well.
     However,  the  appropriate  tool  name  for a UNIX tool that
     creates populated filesystems - mkproto - is not well known.

     If mkisofs is creating a filesystem image  with  Rock  Ridge
     attributes  and  the  directory  nesting level of the source
     directory tree is too much for  ISO-9660,  mkisofs  will  do
     deep  directory  relocation.   This  results  in a directory
     called RR_MOVED in the root directory of the CD. You  cannot
     avoid  this  directory in the directory tree that is visible
     with ISO-9660 but it it automatically  hidden  in  the  Rock
     Ridge tree.

     The  sparc  boot  support  that  is  implemented  with   the
     -sparc-boot options completely follows the official Sparc CD
     boot requirements from the Boot prom in Sun  Sparc  systems.

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     Some Linux distributions for Sparc systems use a boot loader
     called SILO that unfortunately is not Sparc CD boot  compli-
     ant.  It is annoyingly to see that the Authors of SILO don't
     fix SILO but instead provide a completely  unneeded  "patch"
     to  mkisofs  that  incorporates far more source than the fix
     for SILO would need.


BUGS

     o    Does not properly read relocated directories in  multi-
          session mode when adding data.

          Any relocated deep directory is lost if the new session
          does not include the deep directory.

          Repeat by: create first  session  with  deep  directory
          relocation  then add new session with a single dir that
          differs from the old deep path.

     o    Does not re-use RR_MOVED when doing multi-session  from
          TRANS.TBL

     There may be some other ones.  Please, report  them  to  the
     author.


HFS PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS

     I have had to make several assumptions on how I  expect  the
     modified  libhfs  routines  to  work,  however  there may be
     situations that either I haven't thought of, or come  across
     when  these  assumptions  fail.  Therefore I can't guarantee
     that mkisofs will work as expected (although I haven't had a
     major problem yet). Most of the HFS features work fine, how-
     ever, some are not fully tested. These are marked  as  Alpha
     above.

     Although HFS filenames appear to  support  upper  and  lower
     case  letters,  the filesystem is case insensitive. i.e. the
     filenames "aBc" and "AbC" are the same. If a file  is  found
     in  a  directory  with  the same HFS name, then mkisofs will
     attempt, where possible, to make a unique name by adding '_'
     characters to one of the filenames.

     HFS file/directory names that share the first 31  characters
     have  _N' (N == decimal number) substituted for the last few
     characters to generate unique names.

     Care must be  taken  when  "grafting"  Apple/Unix  files  or
     directories  (see above for the method and syntax involved).
     It is not possible to use  a  new  name  for  an  Apple/Unix
     encoded  file/directory.  e.g.  If a Apple/Unix encoded file
     called "oldname" is to added to the CD, then you can not use
     the command line:

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          mkisofs    -o     output.raw     -hfs     -graft-points
          newname=oldname cd_dir

     mkisofs will be unable to decode "oldname". However, you can
     graft Apple/Unix encoded files or directories as long as you
     do not attempt to give them new names as above.

     When creating an HFS volume with the  multisession  options,
     -M and -C, only files in the last session will be in the HFS
     volume. i.e. mkisofs can not add existing files from  previ-
     ous sessions to the HFS volume.

     However, if each session is created with the  -part  option,
     then  each  session  will  appear  as  separate volumes when
     mounted on a Mac. In this case, it is worth using the -V  or
     -hfs-volid option to give each session a unique volume name,
     otherwise each "volume" will appear on the Desktop with  the
     same name.

     Symbolic links (as with all other non-regular files) are not
     added to the HFS directory.

     Hybrid volumes may be larger than pure ISO-9660 volumes con-
     taining  the  same  data.  In  some  cases  (e.g.  DVD sized
     volumes) the hybrid volume may be significantly  larger.  As
     an HFS volume gets bigger, so does the allocation block size
     (the smallest amount of space a file  can  occupy).   For  a
     650Mb  CD,  the allocation block is 10Kb, for a 4.7Gb DVD it
     will be about 70Kb.

     The maximum number of files in an HFS volume is about  65500
     - although the real limit will be somewhat less than this.

     The resulting hybrid  volume  can  be  accessed  on  a  Unix
     machine  by using the hfsutils routines. However, no changes
     can be made to the volume as it is set as locked. The option
     -hfs-unlock  will  create an output image that is unlocked -
     however no changes should be made to  the  contents  of  the
     volume  (unless  you really know what you are doing) as it's
     not a "real" HFS volume.

     Using the -mac-name option will not currently work with  the
     -T  option  -  the  Unix  name will be used in the TRANS.TBL
     file, not the Macintosh name.

     Although mkisofs does not alter the contents of a file, if a
     binary  file  has  its  TYPE  set  as 'TEXT', it may be read
     incorrectly on a Macintosh. Therefore a  better  choice  for
     the default TYPE may be '????'

     The -mac-boot-file option may not work at all...

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     May not work with PC Exchange v2.2 or higher  files  (avail-
     able  with  MacOS  8.1).   DOS  media containing PC Exchange
     files should be mounted as type msdos (not vfat) when  using
     Linux.

     The SFM format is only partially supported - see HFS  MACIN-
     TOSH FILE FORMATS section above.

     It  is  not  possible  to  use  the   the   -sparc-boot   or
     -generic-boot options with the -boot-hfs-file the -prep-boot
     or -chrp-boot options.

     mkisofs should be able to create HFS hybrid images over 4Gb,
     although this has not been fully tested.


SEE ALSO

     cdrecord(1),      mkzftree(1),      sfind(1),      magic(5),
     apple_driver(8).


FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS

     Some sort of gui interface.


AVAILABILITY

     mkisofs is available as part of the  cdrecord  package  from
     https://sourceforge.net/projects/cdrtools/files/

     hfsutils from ftp://ftp.mars.org/pub/hfs

     mkzftree is available as part of  the  zisofs-tools  package
     from ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/fs/zisofs/


MAILING LISTS

     If you want to actively take  part  on  the  development  of
     mkisofs,  you  may  join the developer mailing list via this
     URL:

     https://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/cdrtools-
     developers


MAINTAINER

     Joerg Schilling
     Seestr. 110
     D-13353 Berlin
     Germany


HFS MKHYBRID MAINTAINER

     James Pearson

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Maintenance Procedures                                 MKISOFS(8)

     j.pearson@ge.ucl.ac.uk

     If you have support questions, send them to:

     cdrtools-support@lists.sourceforge.net

     If you definitely found a bug, send a mail to:

     cdrtools-developers@lists.sourceforge.net
     or joerg.schilling@fokus.fraunhofer.de

     To subscribe, use:

     https://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/cdrtools-
     developers
     or    https://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/cdrtools-
     support


INTERFACE STABILITY

     The interfaces provided by mkisofs  are  designed  for  long
     term  stability.   As mkisofs depends on interfaces provided
     by the underlying operating system,  the  stability  of  the
     interfaces  offered by mkisofs depends on the interface sta-
     bility of the OS interfaces. Modified interfaces in  the  OS
     may enforce modified interfaces in mkisofs.

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